Formation of catecholamines

Formation of catecholamines:

In the human adult the adrenal glands are positioned close to the upper pole of the kidneys and in size the average 45 x 26 x 6 mm and weighs approximately 10g each. The adrenal gland is separated into two dissimilar portions:

1. Medulla and
2. Cortex.

Catecholamines are secreted from the adrenal glands’ medullary portion.


These above two hormones, relating to the catecholamine class of organic compounds, comprise potent biological activity in both of the metabolic and physiologic regulations. Epinephrine regulates carbohydrate metabolism, it has the influence of effect liver and hyperglycemia, muscle glycogenolysis, and glucosuria. The hormone causes raised oxygen consumption, the influence of it being quicker from that of thyroxine. Nor epinephrine causes raise in blood pressure through causing an raise in peripheral resistance. However, the hormone has little influence on carbohydrate metabolism.
Tyrosine gets transformed to form norepinephrine and epinephrine.

1. It is 1st hydroxylated to 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) via a particular enzyme. DOPA is an intermediate that is common to the synthesis of both epinephrine and melanin.


 2. DOPA is subsequent decarboxylated to dopamine via a decarboxylase in the existence of pyridoxalphosphate.


3.  The next one is dopamineisoxidised to yield norepinephrine. The reaction is catalysed through dopam in ehydroxylase and ascorbicacid.


4. Norepinephrine’s  methylation in the medulla provides rise to epinephrine. The methyl group is obtained from S-adenosyl methionine.



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