Antibodies that found in the serum and another body fluids of vertebrates that react particularly with the Ag. Antibody relates to a family of globular protein called Immunoglobulin. Antibody are Gamma globulins, in usual immune response antibodies are heterogeneous. It gives defense in opposition to extra cellular antigen.
Antibody has two major functions. That is:

A. Bind particularly to foreign or non self molecules.
B. Recruit another cells and molecule to destroy the pathogen (effectors function or Biological activity)



                                                   Diagram: Papain and Pepsin cleavages

To understand the function of several ends in the antibody molecule the more abundant IgG molecule while subjected to papain and pepsin cleavages, as displayed in the above diagram the papain cleavage yields 2 monovalent Fab molecule that combine with the antigen (Fragment antigen binding) and one Fc part that can be the fragment crystalisable. While similar IgG molecule subjected to pepsin cleavage it resulted along with a divalent antigen binding Fab part and fragments of Fc portion. Since this is the papain cleaves among the heavy chain and the hinge region .The pepsin cleaves later than the disulfide bridge. This enzymatic digestion as well points out that the two disulfide bonds hold the chains together. Though, the Fc portion is necessary for biological activity. Fc region can connect to a host cell or complement or assists to cross the placenta.


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