Avogadro's hypothesis Law Principle

Avogadro's hypothesis Law Principle- Berzelius, a chemist tried to correlate Dalton's atomic theory & Gay-Lussac's Law of gaseous volumes. According to his Berzelius hypothesis Equal volumes of all gases under similar conditions of temperature & pressure contain equal number of atoms e.g.

Hydrogen (1 vol) + Chlorine (1 vol)->HCl (2 vol)

Acc to Berzelius hypothesis:

Hydrogen (1/2 atom) + Chlorine (1/2 atom)->HCl (1 compound atom)

But this is indirect conflict of Dalton's atomic theory, so it was rejected.

So a new hypothesis was given by Avogardo.

According to him, An atom is a smallest particle of an element which can take part in a chemical reaction which may or may not be capable of independent existence.

molecule is the smallest particle of an element or of a compound which have an independent existence. So the smallest particle of a gas is a molecule not an atom, so the volume of gas must be related to the number of molecules rather than atoms.

According to Avogrado's Hypothesis-Equal volume of all gases under similar conditions of temperature & pressure contain equal number of molecules. This is able to explain all the gaseous reactions & now known as Avogrado's Law or Avogrado's principle.

For example-

Hydrogen (1 vol) + Chlorine (1 vol)->HCl (2 vol)

By Avogrado's hypothesis:

n molecule+n molecule gives 2n molecule

1/2molecule of both [Hydrogen + Chlorine] ->HCl (1 molecule)

 Applications of this hypothesis-

(1)In the calculation of atomicity of elementary gases-Atomicity is defined as the number of atoms of the element present in one molecule of the substance e.g. atomicity of N2 is two & O3 is three.

(2)To find the relationship between molecular mass & vapour density of gas-(relative density)

Vapour density of gas=Density of gas/density of hydrogen

           =Mass of [certain vol of gas/same volume of H2] at STP

            =Mass of [n molecule of gas/ n molecule of H2] at STP

            =Mass of [1 molecule of gas/ 1 molecule of H2] at STP

 

                          Vapour density=Molecular Mass/2

(3)To find the relationship between mass & volume of gas-As the

Molecular Mass=Vapour density x 2

Or Molecular Mass=Mass of 22.4 L of gas at STP

Thus 22.4 L of any gas at STP weight is equal to the molecular mass of the gas expressed in grams which is called Gram-Molecular Volume Law (G.M.V.).

   Related Questions in Chemistry

  • Q : Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic

    Inorganic Chemistry:In the year 1869, Russian Chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev forms the periodic table of the element. Since Newlands did before him in the year 1863, Mendeleyev categorizes the el

  • Q : Problem on partial pressure i) Show

    i) Show that the equilibrium constant Kp for the reaction CaCo3(s) ↔ CaO(s) +CO2(g)is about unity (i.e. = 1.0) at 895 °C.ii) If two grams of calcium carbonate are pl

  • Q : Dipole moment of chlorooctane

    Illustrate the dipole moment of chlorooctane?

  • Q : Group Cations Explain how dissolving

    Explain how dissolving the Group IV carbonate precipitate with 6M CH3COOH, followed by the addition of extra acetic acid, establishes a buffer with a pH of approximately

  • Q : Alkaline medium The amount of KMnO 4

    The amount of KMnO4 required to prepare 100 ml of 0.1N solution in alkaline medium is: (a) 1.58 gm (b) 3.16 gm (c) 0.52 gm (d) 0.31 gmAnswer: (a) In alkaline medium KMnO4 act as ox

  • Q : Polyhalogen compounds we need 10

    we need 10 examples for the polyhalogen compounds....please help me....need it urgently...

  • Q : Problem on equilibrium constant Ethanol

    Ethanol is manufactured from carbon monoxide and hydrogen at 600 K and 20 bars according to the reaction2 C0(g) + 4 H2(g) ↔ C2H5OH(g) + H2O (g)The feed stream contains 60 mol% H2, 20 m

  • Q : How to calculate solutions ionic

    Transference numbers and molar conductors can be used to calculate ionic mobilities. This tables under is giving the transference numbers for positive ions at 25 degree C and the values obtained by extrapolation to infinite dilution:

    Q : Direction of dipole moment expected

    Illustrate the direction of the dipole moment expected for hydrogen bromide?

  • Q : Molar conductance what is the molar

    what is the molar conductance of chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride?

©TutorsGlobe All rights reserved 2022-2023.