Introduction of Thermal Physics
The combined study of statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, and kinetic theory is called as Thermal physics. This umbrella-subject is usually designed for physics students and functions to provide a general introduction to each of three core heat-related subjects. Other authors, however, describes thermal physics loosely as a summation of only statistical mechanics and thermodynamics.
Kinetic Model of Matter
The States of Matter
1. This model states that all matter is made up of tiny atoms of molecules in continuous motion
2. Molecular Model of 3 States of Matter:
Forces Between Molecules
Strong intermolecular forces holding molecules in fixed position
Not as strong in solid, molecules side
Negligible forces, particles free to move
Close arrangement of particles - High Densities
Distance Between Molecules
Arranged close together in regular pattern
Not arranged in regular pattern
Far apart, mainly empty space
Motion of molecules
Vibrate about fixed positions
Free to move about confined space
Move randomly at high speed, colliding with each other.
Cannot be compressed as molecules are close together, little space between them
Can be easily compressed
Molecules gain energy, vibrate more, separation between molecules increase slightly.
Molecules vibrate about more vigorously, thus liquid expands
Molecules move even more randomly and collide more.
3. Brownian Motion demonstrates that air particles are moving about in random motion.
4. Whenever smoke particles are seen under the microscope, they are notice to move:
b. Irregularly as they are being bombarded by air molecules which are too small to be seen.
c. The bigger smoke particles are observed to move slower than the smaller particles.
5. This illustrates that the air molecules are inconstant random motion:
A. each smoke particle is constantly bombarded by the surrounding air molecules from all directions.
b. These bombardments are not balanced and the resultant force acting on the smoke particle actions the random motion of that particle.
6. When the temperature is increased,
a. There is so much thermal energy converted in to kinetic energy of the air molecules,
b. let them to move faster with more force,
c. Thus bombarding the smoke particles more frequently,
d. Causing the motion of the smoke particles to become more vigorous and change direction more often
Pressure in Gases
7. in an air tight container,
a. a force is exerted, when an air molecule hits the inner wall of the container.
b. At any one time, there are numerous of these collisions acting against the wall of the container.
c. The accumulated forces exert a pressure on the wall of the container.
d. Thus pressure of a gas is due to the collisions of gas molecules with the walls of the container.
8. The pressure of the gas increases when:
a. Volume of container decreases,
b. Temperature of gas increases, or
c. Number of gas molecules increase.
9. When the volume of gas in the container is reduced:
a. The region of the walls of the container decreases,
b. The number of gas molecules for each unit volume increases,
c. Thus there is a greater amount of force acting on a small area, increasing the pressure of the gas.
10. When the temperature of the gas increases,
a. The Kinetic Energy of the gas molecules increases,
b. The force on the container because of the collisions and speed of the air molecules increases,
C. Thus as the force increase over the similar area, the pressure increases.
d. The volume of the gas also increases as it expands in order for the pressure to remain constant.
11. When the numbers of gas molecules get increase,
a. There will be much more collisions between the molecules and the walls of the container,
B. so the accumulated forces between the molecules and the container is higher,
c. Causing the force per area ratio to increase, increasing the pressure.
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