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Introduction to Optics Physics

Optics is the field of physics which includes the behavior and properties of light, which includes its connections with substance and the production of instruments that use or identify it. Fundamental of Optics Physics

Optics generally defines the behavior of visible, infrared light and ultraviolet. Because of light is an electromagnetic other types of electromagnetic radiation like X-rays, microwaves and radio waves exhibit same properties.

Nearly all optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic explanation of light. Complete electromagnetic explanations of light are, though, some time tricky to apply in practice. Practical optics is generally ended using basic models. The most familiar of these, geometric optics treats light as a group of rays that pass through in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces. Physical is a more inclusive model of light, which contains wave effects like diffraction and interference that cannot be accounted for in geometric optics. In history, the ray-based model of light was invented 1st, afterward the wave model of light. Evolution in the hypothesis of electromagnetic, in the 19th century led to the discovery that light waves were actually electromagnetic radiation .Some phenomena depends on the truth that light has both particle-like and wave-like properties. Description of these effects needs quantum mechanics. When consider light's particle-like properties, the light is modeled as a group of particles called "photons". Quantum optics deals with the application of quantum mechanics to optical systems.

Optical science is related to and studied in many associated disciplines which includes several engineering fields, astronomy, photography, and medicine  (particularly ophthalmology and optometry) Practical applications of optics can found in various technologies and everyday objects which include microscopes, mirrors, lenses, telescopes,  fiber optics and lasers.

Physical optics or wave optics builds on Huygens's principle, which says that every point on an advancing wave front is the hub of a new disturbance. When get pooled with the superposition principle, this give details how optical phenomena are marked when there are numerous sources or obstructions that are spaced at distances same to the wavelength of the light.

Complex models, which depend on physical optics, can account for the transmission of any wave front through an optical system, which includes predicting the amplitude, wavelength and phase of the wave.

In addition to, all of the results from geometrical optics can be recovered by using the methods of Fourier optics which apply many of the similar mathematical and analytical methods used in signal processing and acoustic engineering.  By using numerical modeling on a computer optical scientists can simulate the transmission of light and account for most interference, diffraction, and polarization effects. These types of simulations characteristically still rely on approximations, though; this is not a full electromagnetic wave theory model of the propagation of light. This type of full model is computationally demanding and is usually only used to solve small-scale problems that need more accuracy. Gaussian beam propagation is a simple paraxial physical optics model for the transmission of coherent radiation like laser beams. This method partially accounts for diffraction, allowing correct calculations of the rate at which a laser beam expands with space, and the smallest size to which the beam can be focused. Gaussian beam propagation thus bridges the gap among geometric and physical optics. Classical optics

Light propagates through space as a wave with wavelength, amplitude, speed and frequency, which depends on how it was emitted and on the medium in which light travels. Light is an electromagnetic wave in pre-quantum-mechanical optics, which is composed of oscillating magnetic and electric fields. These branches frequently produce each other, as the wave circulates through space and oscillates in time.

The frequency of a light wave is resolute by the time phase of the oscillations. The frequency does not usually change as the wave travels from different materials (media) but the speed of the wave depends on the medium. The frequency, speed, and wavelength of a wave are related by the formula

υ = λf

Where υ is the speed, λ is the wavelength and f is the frequency. Due to the frequency is fixed, a change in the wave's speed produces a change in its wavelength.

The speed of light in a medium which is typically characterized by the index of refraction, n, which is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum. c to the speed in the medium:

n = c/v.

The speed of light in vacuum is a fixed, which is exactly 299,792,458metres per second. Therefore, a light ray with a wavelength of λ in a vacuum will have a wavelength of λ /n in a material with index of refraction n. The amplitude of the light wave is associated to the intensity of the light, which is correlated to the energy stored in the wave's electric and magnetic fields. Traditional optics is categorized into two main branches: physical optics and geometrical optics.

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