Modern Physics, Physics tutorial

Modern Physics:

Modern physics signifies physics based on two major breakthroughs of early twentieth century: relativity and quantum mechanics. 

Physics based on what was identified before then (Newton's laws, Maxwell's equations, thermodynamics) is known as classical physics.

Term modern physics refers to post-Newtonian conception of physics. Modern physics manages with fundamental structure of smallest particles in nature (quantum mechanics), and thorough understanding of essential interaction of particles, understood as forces. Small velocities and large distances is generally realm of classical physics. Modern physics frequently involves severe conditions; quantum effects generally involve distances comparable to atoms (roughly 10-9 m), as relativistic effects generally involve velocities comparable to speed of light (roughly 108 m/s).

It signifies that classical explanations of phenomena are lacking, and that an accurate, modern, explanation of reality needs theories to include elements of quantum mechanics or Einsteinian relativity, or both. Generally, term is utilized to refer to any branch of physics either developed in early 20th century and onwards, or branches really influenced by early 20th century physics.

The three of the major areas of modern physic are, relativity, quantum theory and chaotic physics, and their effects for the knowledge of cosmos compose the significant challenge for modern philosophical procedure. Most significant thing for which we start to attain the strong comprehension after recent development of natural sciences, is complementary between science and philosophy. This is in contrast to the firm positivist and reductionist spirit of modern civilization and of philosophical presuppositions, after the European renaissance.


Theory of relativity, or only relativity in physics, generally includes two theories given by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

Concepts established by theories of relativity are:

  • Measurements of different quantities are relative to velocities of observers. Particularly, space contracts and time dilates.
  • Spacetime: Space and time must be considered together and in relation to each other.
  • Speed of light is however invariant, same for all observers.

Quantum theory:

Quantum theory is theoretical basis of modern physics which describes nature and behavior of matter and energy on atomic and subatomic level. Nature and behavior of matter and energy at that level is at times referred to as quantum physics and quantum mechanics.

Chaotic physics:

Chaos is science of surprises, of nonlinear and unpredictable. It teaches to expect unexpected. While most traditional science handles with apparently predictable phenomena such as gravity, electricity, or chemical reactions. Chaos Theory handles with nonlinear things which are efficiently impossible to forecast or control, such as weather, turbulence, stock market, our brain states, etc.

Modern physics is the rich field comprising decisive experiments performed in early part of twentieth century and most recent research which has given us the deeper understanding of fundamental procedure in nature. In conjunction with the growing understanding of physical world, a growing technology has led to development of lasers, solid state devices, and several other innovations.

An Atom: Is the Smallest part of the element which can take part in the chemical reaction and retains all chemical properties of that element.

Atomic Structure: The atom is spherical in shape. It has nucleus which is positively charged and located at centre of the atom. Nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. Negative electrons move round nucleus in energy shells. Electrons are held together by strong Columbic forces. Positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons combined to give the atom a neutral charge. Atoms have radius of 10-10 m and radius of nucleus is 10-16 m.

Charge Quantization: Electricity comprises of charges carried by electrons, protons, neutrons etc. Electric charges are of two forms: Positive and Negative. Negative charges are known as electrons and positive charges are known as protons.

Charge carry by both electron and proton are precisely equal but opposite. Minimum electric charge is denoted by the symbol e, electronic charge has the magnitude of 1.6 X 10-19 Coulombs. That is e = 1.6 X 10-19 C.

Bohr's model: Bohr's model of the atom was extensively accepted as correct model of the atom. Few of its basic revolutionary suggestions of the atom are:

Electrons can revolve round nucleus in only in certain allowed orbits and while they are in the orbits they don't emit radiations (energy). Each orbit has the fixed amount of energy (has kinetic energy because of motion and potential energy due to attraction of the nucleus.)

Hydrogen Spectra: These are horizontal lines drawn one above other to represent energy transition (or energy levels) in increasing order in the hydrogen atom. The transition is the jump from one energy level to another.

Radioactive series is the sequence of nuclides, each of which transforms by radioactive disintegration into the next, until the stable nuclide is attained. It is also called as decay series or disintegration series.

Nuclear Stability: Stability of atom depends on both number of protons and neutrons in atom. For stable nuclides the given points emerge.

i) Lightest nuclides have almost equal number of protons and protons.

ii) Heaviest nuclides need more neutrons than protons, the heaviest having about 50% more.

Wave - Particle duality of matter: Wave - particle duality signifies that matter show wave properties and particle properties. (Wave properties are diffraction, polarization, reflection, interference, refraction, and superposition and particle properties are mass, momentum etc.)

Production of X - Ray: X - ray are high - energy photons which are produced when electrons jump (or make transition) from one atomic orbit to another. This transition takes place when photoelectric effect (or free electrons) of high energy (in order of thousands electro volt) penetrate deep in atoms and knock out electrons from deep energy levels. Fall of electrons from higher energy levels in the gaps left by knocked out electrons cause emission of high energy X - rays.

Contribution of modern physics:

Developments of modern physics movement have already had the deep effect on worldview of physics and the physicists themselves. Certainly, as intensely shocking ontological and epistemological developments of new physics come to be more completely understood by social and behavioral scientists, their model will also experience transformation. Niels Bohr said that those who aren't initially shocked by quantum mechanics don't understand it.

In contradiction of view of classical science, ontological position of new physics is not to prove or disprove actuality of objective phenomena. Rather, ontology of new physics can't be separated from epistemology, as objective of new physics is to track down, as accurately as possible, relationship between multiple characteristics of world of phenomenological events (observed) and symbolic construction of the phenomenological events as they are experienced by observer.

Direction the new age model seems to be taking social and behavioral sciences is toward holistic metaphysics, stressing concerned rather than firmly rational understanding, and toward methods and models which promote the participatory role of observer in procedure of scientific investigation of social-psychological phenomena.

Though, despite participatory philosophy of emerging new age model that underscores emergent phenomenological reality, Wilber recommends the use of caution in the totally uncritical application of methodological perspective

Modern physics provides us strict signs that cosmic reality is made up of discriminated forms of existence that can't be reduced in the fundamental and final shapeless substance. That is we can refuse the mechanistic view that definite cosmic beings are without their own hypostasis, coming from transient formation of the eternal shapeless substance. While every individual existence can be examined in elements, itself constitutes simultaneously an holistic, non-reductionable reality. Those cosmic forms are explained by terms of matter and energy, while in addition now it appears that in a deeper level are forms of information and reasonableness.

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