Classical Physics, Physics tutorial

Classical Physics (I and II):

Classical physics is based mainly on laws of motion and gravitation of Sir Isaac Newton and theory of electromagnetic radiation of James Clerk Maxwell. In classical physics matter and energy are two different concepts.

Few of the most significant laws in classical physics are conservation laws. Law of conservation of mass states that matter can't be created or destroyed. Law of conservation of energy defines that energy can't be created or destroyed. Law of conservation of momentum defines that momentum of the object is unchanged unless force applies on it.

Classical physics is generally divided in numerous branches, each of which handles with the group of related phenomena. Mechanics is the study of forces and their effect on matter. Dynamics is study of change in motion due to force. Hydromechanics is mechanics of fluids; i.e., of liquids and gases. Hydromechanics is also called as fluid mechanics. Statics handles with how force affects bodies in constant motion and moving in the constant direction. Optics is a study of behavior of light. Thermodynamics is a study of heat, and how heat energy is stored, transmitted, and converted to other states of energy. Acoustics is study of sound. Study of electricity and magnetism also forms the branch of classical physics.

Classical physics took form when Newton developed theory of gravity and mathematics usually called as calculus. Newtonian physics were three dimensional: width, height and depth. Three hundred years ago Isaac Newton stated space and time to be eternal and immutable ingredients in composition of cosmos; pristine structures lying beyond bounds of question and elucidation. Newton wrote about absolute space in its nature without relation to anything external stays always similar and fixed. Absolute, true and mathematical time of itself and from its own nature flows evenly without relation to anything external.

Difference between Modern physics and Classical physics :

Modern physics gives a wider, and thus more correct, picture of behavior of universe than does classical physics. As classical physics is simpler to understand and use, though, it stays priceless in numerous situations. Classical physics is directly associated to everyday experience and, thus, gives a good introduction to study of physics. In most everyday occurrences classical physics is as accurate as modern physics; as in, for example, computing the force needed to move a heavy object, or finding speed of the train. Classical physics, thus, is still useful.

Modern physics is reserved for situations where classical physics does not apply. These situations arise particularly when extremely small masses or high speeds (speeds approaching the speed of light) are involved. Even when not used directly, modern physics provides the theoretical basis for the work done in physics.

In contrast to classical physics, modern physics is slightly looser term which may refer to just quantum physics or to 20th and 21st century physics in general. Modern physics comprises quantum theory and relativity, when appropriate.

The physical system can be considered in classical limit when they satisfy conditions such that laws of classical physics are roughly valid. In practice, physical objects larger than atoms and molecules can be well-understood with classical mechanics, comprising objects in macroscopic and astronomical realm. Starting at atomic level, laws of classical physics break down and usually don't give the correct explanation of nature. Electromagnetic fields and forces can be explained well by classical electrodynamics at length scales and field strengths large enough that quantum mechanical effects are insignificant. Unlike quantum physics, classical physics is usually characterized by principle of complete determinism, though deterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics do present

Quantum mechanics gives such a different explanation of world compared to classical physics that even Albert Einstein had difficulties understanding the implications of theory. Though, at times predictions attributed to quantum-mechanical effects alone really conform to framework and predictions of classical physics.

Problems with Classical Physics:

Few problems leading to development of Quantum Mechanics are given below.

Black Body Radiation: Classical physics forecasted that hot objects would immediately radiate away all their heat in electromagnetic waves. Calculation that was based on Maxwell's equations and Statistical Mechanics showed that radiation rate went to infinity as EM wavelength went to zero. Plank solved problem by proposing that EM energy was emitted in quanta with

E = hv

The Photoelectric Effect: When light was utilized to knock electrons out of solids, results were entirely different than expected from Maxwell's equations. Measurements were simple to describe if light is composed of particles with energies Plank postulated.

Compton Scattering: When light was scattered off electrons, it behaved just like the particle but changes wave length in scattering; more proof for particle nature of light and Plank's postulate.

Waves and Particles: In diffraction experiments, light was illustrated to behave like wave while in experiments like Photoelectric effect, light behaved like the particle. More complicated diffraction experiments illustrated that electrons (as well as other particles) also behaved like the wave, however we can only detect the integer number of electrons (or photons).

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