Tissue Transplantation:Transplantation in immunology means the transfer of cells, tissues or organs from one site to the other. Most of the diseases can be cured by implantation of healthy organ or tissues or cells (i.e., a graft) from one individual (i.e., the donor) to another who is in requirement of a transplant (i.e., the recipient or host). The immune system protects the body from attack by foreign agents, and the similar mechanism rejects grafts from anyone who is not genetically similar to the recipient.
Alexis Carrel reported the primary transplantation in the year1908. He interchanged both kidneys in nine cats. Several transplanted cats sustained urinary output for 25 days. Even although all the cats died, it was established that the transplanted organ could carry out usual function.
Then in the year 1935 a Russian scientist attempted first human kidney transplantation. However the patient died as the kidney was discarded. Then the first successful human kidney transplantation was taken out in Boston in the year1954 between the same twins.
These days kidney, heart, pancreas, lung, liver, bone-marrow and cornea transplantations are executed even among non-similar individuals.
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