Passive immunization

Passive immunization:

Passive immunization includes administration of preformed antibody acquired from humans or animals those have been vigorously immunized.

Passive immunization is taken out in the infections shown below:

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Vaccines:

Vaccines are live or killed microorganisms or their products that are employed for immunization. There are various kinds of vaccine known. They are killed or inactivated vaccines, internal image antibody vaccine, Sub unit vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, Recombinant DNA vaccine, Synthetic peptide vaccine, or DNA vaccine.

Killed or inactivated vaccine: 

This kind of vaccines is made by killing the microorganisms by formalin, heat, alcohol, phenol, U-V light & Beta propiolactone. Any one of such techniques inactivates the micro-organisms. Illustrations of inactivated vaccines are TAB vaccine for enteric fever (i.e., Bacterial vaccine) and Salk polio vaccine (i.e., Viral vaccine).

TAB vaccine:

TAB vaccine has 1000 million S. typhi, 750 million S. paratyphi A and S. paratyphi B in 1 ml. Such organisms are killed by heating at 50-60°C and conserved in .5% phenol. The vaccine is specified in two doses of 0.5 ml subcutaneously at an interval of 4 to 6 weeks. In many countries, TAB vaccine has been substituted by the divalent typhoid-paratyphoid. A vaccine removing paratyphoid B which is very rare.

Advantages of killed vaccine:

Killed vaccines are secure since they do not revert back to live or virulent forms

Disadvantages of killed vaccines:

1. Immunity lasts for short period of time 
2. Booster dosage is needed.

 

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