Immunological basis of graft rejection

Immunological basis of graft rejection:

The immune response to a graft differs with the kind of graft.

Autograft is self-tissue transferred from one body site to the other in the similar individual. This is completed generally in burn patients.

Isograft is the tissue transfer among genetically similar individuals. In inbred mice the transfer of tissues can be taken out. In humans it is taken out among identical (i.e., monozygous) twins.

Allograft is tissue transferred among genetically distinct members of the similar species. Illustration: organ donation from one person to the other.

Xenograft is the transfer of tissue from one species to the other.

Example: the graft of a monkey heart into a human.

Autografts and isografts are generally accepted by the host since there is genetic identity among the graft and the host. In situation of allograft, it is acknowledged as foreign and discarded by the immune system.  Xenografts exhibit maximum genetic variations and the grafts are discarded vigorously.

Antigenically identical tissues are termed as histocompatible, and they do not induce tissue refusal. Tissues which show antigenic differences are termed as histoincompatible and they induce immune response followed by refusal.

The rejection of foreign tissue is the outcome of an immune response to cell surface molecules, termed as histocompatibility antigens. There are two kinds of histocompatibility complex. They are main histocompatibility complex and minor histocompatibility complex. The major histocompatibility complex is a gathering of genes arranged within a constant stretch of DNA on sixth chromosome in human and on seventeenth chromosome in mice. MHC is termed to as the HLA complex in humans and H2 complex in mice. There are three groups of MHC genes.


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