High Energy phosphates:
High-Energy-Transfer compounds are such capable of transferring large quantity of free energy and a diversity of such compounds exists in cells and the break-down of a molecule by enzyme liberates the energy. A high energy-transfer molecule is identical to a mouse trap whenever set has great energy in the spring opposing the action of the catch. Tripping of catch is identical to the breakdown discharging the energy.
Andenosine triphosphate (i.e., ATP) is the most significant high energy transfer component found in cell. This is the “energy currency” of the cell in swapping of energy among exergonic and endergonic reactions. There are other energy rich compounds obtainable in the cell. Each molecule of Adenosine, uridine, guanosine, and cytidine triphosphates liberates –7.3 a ΔGo’ Kcal mol-1. The ΔGo’ value for acetyl phosphate (-10 Kcal mol-1)1,3 diphosphoglyceric acid (-11.8 Kcal mol-1 and phsphoenol pyruvic acid (-14.8 Kcal mol-1) are as well high energy compounds.
It is noticed from above that all such compounds have phosphates and phosphorylated compounds have high energy. Hydrolysis of ATP liberates energy with the formation of Adenosine diphosphate (i.e., ADP) that is also a high energy transfer compound which outcomes Adenonine monophosphate (i.e., AMP).
In intact cell depending upon the pH, concentration of ATP, ADP, Mg++ and so on, the free energy of hydrolysis of ATP within the cell is nearer to -12.5 Kcal.
Energy is liberated during oxidation-reduction (O/R) reactions, oxidation is the loss of electron and reverse is reduction that is gain of electron. Oxidizing agent (i.e., oxidant) will absorb electrons and get decreased whereas reducing agent (i.e., reductant) contributes an electron and gets oxidized in the procedure. An oxidant and a reductant are included. A hydrogen atom comprises of one proton and one electron and the elimination of Hydrogen is also oxidation procedure as an electron is lost in the elimination. Thus oxidation-reduction reactions are dehydrogenations including loss of hydrogen atoms.
In the above two procedures Ferric ion and Hydrogen ion are oxidizing agents which accept an electron and get reduced. In the process (3) ferrous ion, a reducing agent, contributes an electron and gets oxidized to Ferric ion. The above processes point out that reverse of each oxidation is reduction and the reverse of each reduction is oxidation and in each reaction a pair of substances namely, a reduced and an oxidized form (example) Ferrous and Ferric ion are included. Such a pair is termed as oxidation-reduction (O/R) system. An O/R system (A) might absorb an electron from the other system (B) therefore oxidizing (B). The power of tendency to absorb electrons is stated as standard oxidation-reduction potential or electromotive free (Eo’) of the O/R system. Eo’ is measured electrically beneath standard conditions wherein e-donor and it’s conjugate at 1.0 M concentration at around 25oC and pH 7 and expressed in volts. The more positive the Eo the bigger is the oxidizing ability of the system. Whenever one O/R system oxidizes energy is liberated. When the voltage difference is large, a quantity of free energy is enough to synthesize ATP might be liberated. There are a range of O/R systems in living organisms (Table is as shown below).
Table: O/R system in the respiratory chain
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