Such division involves horsetails, club mosses, and ferns. The oldest acknowledged pteridophytes are fossils from the end of the Silurian period, that is, 380 million years ago. Pteridophyta comprises the earliest acknowledged vascular plants. Vascular plants are those plants which have the vascular tissue which is the conducting tissue of xylem and phloem. At times each vascular plant is involved in one division that is the Tracheophyta. This is to emphasize the advance nature of the vascular tissue over simple conducting cells of some Algae and Bryophytes. Tracheophyta involves pteridophytes and the more advanced spermatophytes (i.e., seed bearing plants) as two classifications.

Existence of vascular tissue is a feature of sporophyte generation that in the bryophytes is small and reliant on the gametophyte. The occurrence of vascular tissue in sporophyte is one of the reasons why sporophyte generation has become dominant one in all vascular plants.  The vascular tissue of pteridophytes exhibits certain primitive features as compared with flowering plants. The xylem of pteridophytes has only tracheids instead of vessels and the phloem has sieve cells instead of sieve tubes.

Vascular tissue has two significant roles to execute initially it forms a transport system, conducting water and food about the multi-cellular body, therefore leading to the development of big, complex bodies. Secondly, xylem, one of the vascular tissues, supports such big bodies as xylem holds lignified cells of great strength and firmness.


 Figure: Graphical symbolization of life cycle of Pteridophyte (Homosporous)


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