Nucleus of the organelle:
Nucleus is the biggest organelle in eukaryotic cells. It is bounded by two membranes. Each one is a phospholipid bilayer having many different kinds of proteins. The inner nuclear membrane states the nucleus itself. In most of the cells the external nuclear membrane is constant with rough ER and the space between the internal and external nuclear membrane is constant with the lumen of the rough ER.
The two nuclear membranes come out to fuse at the nuclear pores. These rings similar to pores are constructed of a particular set of membrane proteins and this act similar to channels that regulate the movement of substances among the nucleus and the cytosol.
In a differentiating or growing cell, the nucleus is metabolically active, generating DNA and RNA. The RNA is exported via nuclear pores to the cytoplasm for utilization in protein synthesis. In ‘resting’ cells, the nucleus is not active or dormant and minimal synthesis of DNA and RNA occurs.
In a nucleus which is not dividing, the chromosomes are dispersed and not thick adequate to be noticed in the light microscope. Only during cell divisions the chromosomes become observable by light microscopy. Chromosomes form the physical base of heredity. Genes, the chemical base of heredity, are arranged in linear fashion on chromosomes. A sub organelle of the nucleus, the nucleolus is simply acknowledged under light microscope. Most of the ribosomal RNA of a cell is synthesized in the nucleolus. The completed or partly completed ribosomal sub units pass via a nuclear pore into the cytosol.
The non-nucleolar areas of the nucleus are termed as the nucleoplasm. It has very high DNA concentration. Fibrous proteins termed as lamins form a 2-dimensional network all along the inner surface of the internal membrane giving it shape and apparently binding DNA to it. During the early phases of cell division breakdown of this network takes place.
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