Mechanism of Translocation:
The theories were introduced to elucidate the mechanism of translocation of solutes.Munch's "Mass Flow" Hypothesis:
Some scientists believe that the soluble food material in the phloem just move like the blood that moves in the blood vessels. Based on this Munch in the year 1930 introduced a hypothesis according to which the soluble food materials in the phloem exhibit mass flow. The fundamental idea behind this theory is that the sugars synthesized by mesophyll cells of leaves augment the osmotic pressure (OP) of such cells causing entry of water into mesophyll due to the absorption of water by xylem cells of root. In another terms a turgor pressure gradient exists via phloem, among the source that is the mesophyll cell and the sink that refers to areas of requirement.
As an outcome, the turgor pressure of mesophyll cells raises on the upper side that forces the solutes dissolved in water to flow en masse into the phloem of stem and lastly into the roots.
This can be stated by a physical system. It comprises of a glass tube bent at right angles. At two ends differentially permeable membranes are tied. Therefore there are two osmometers x and y.
The osmometer x has concentrated sugar solution whereas y has dilute sugar solution. The two osmometers are kept in two individual water containers connected with each other via a tube.
Osmosis will occur and water enters both the osmometers x and y however the water entering `x' is more and as an outcome of turgor pressure developed, water will move out of x and will enter y. In this, the solute molecules are taken to y en masse with the flow of water describing Munch's hypothesis.
The most significant objection for this hypothesis is that it describes only unidirectional flow of solutes.
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