Eukaryotes include all members of Plant Kingdom, Fungi and Animal Kingdoms, comprising the unicellular fungus protozoans and Yeast. Eukaryotic cells, such as prorkaryotic cells are bounded by a plasma membrane. Though, unlike prokaryotic cells, most of the eukaryotic cells have internal membrane bound organelles.
Each kind of organelle plays an exceptional role in the growth and metabolism of the cell, and each has a set of enzymes which catalyze requisite chemical reactions.
The biggest organelle in a eukaryotic cell is usually the nucleus that houses most of the cellular DNA. DNA of eukaryotic cells is distributed among 1 to around 50 long linear structures termed as chromosomes. The number and size of the chromosomes are similar in all cells of an organism however differ among various species of organisms. The total DNA (that is the genetic information) in the chromosomes of an organism is termed to as its genome. In addition to the nucleus, some other organelles are existed in nearly all eukaryotic cells, the mitochondria in which all cell's energy metabolism is taken out, the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticula, a network of membranes in which lipids and proteins are synthesized and peroxysomes, in which amino acids and fatty acids are degraded. Chloroplasts, the place of photosynthesis are found only in plants and few single celled organisms. Both plant and some single celled eukaryotes include one or more vacuoles, big, fluid – filled organelles in which nutrients and waste compounds are stored and certain degradative reactions take place. The cytosol of eukaryotic cells includes an array of fibrous proteins collectively termed as the cytoskeleton. Cytosol is the soluble portion of the cytoplasm. It is positioned between the cell organelles. The plant cell has a firm cell wall composed of cellulose and other polymers. The cell wall shares to the strength and rigidity of plant cell. Some well-known prokaryotes are: Filamentous bacteria (Actinomycetes), Bacteria, and Cyanobacteria.
Various familiar eukaryotes are: Plants, Fungi, and animals.
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