Cross Pollination

Cross Pollination (Allogamy, Xenogamy):

Cross Pollination includes the transfer of pollen grains from the flower of one plant to the stigma of the flower of the other plant. It is also termed as Xenogamy.
 
(Gk. Xenos = Strange and gamos = marriage) or allogamy (gk, allos = other and gamos = marriage. The major floral characteristics that facilitate cross pollination are:

i)  Herkogamy:

Flowers are bisexual however the necessary organs, the stigmas and stamens, are arranged in the flower, in such a manner that self pollination becomes mechanically not possible. Example: Hibiscus sps, Gloriosa superba, and so on.

Hibiscus: The stigmas project far over the stamens.

Gloriosa superba: The style is reflexes away from stamens.

ii)  Dichogamy:

The Pollen and stigma of flower mature at various times to evade self-pollination. It is of two kinds:

a. Protography:

Gynoecium matures previously than androecium example: Aristolochia and so on.

b. Protandry:

Androecium matures and drop pollen gynoecium example: maize.

iii)  Self-incompatibility:

In certain plants, whenever the mature pollen fall on the receptive stigma of similar flower, it fails to bring around self pollination. This is termed as self incompatibility. Beneath such circumstances, the cross pollination is the only choice.

iv) Male sterility:

The pollen grains of certain plants are not functional. These plants set seeds just after crossing pollination.

v)  Dioecism:

The Cross pollination always takes place whenever the plants are unisexual and dioecious that is, female and male flowers take place on separate plants. Example: Papaya, certain cucurbits and so on.

vi) Heterostyly:

The flowers of certain plants have distinct lengths of stamens and styles therefore that self pollination is impossible example: Linum, Primula, and so on.

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