Blood and Tissue nematodes, Biology tutorial

Introduction:

Filariasis is mainly caused by nematodes (that is, roundworms) which inhabit the lymphatics and subcutaneous tissues. There are eight species which mainly infect humans. Three of these are responsible for most of the morbidity due to filariasis: Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi causes lymphatic filariasis and Onchocerca volvulus causes onchocerciasis (that is, river blindness). The other five species are Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, M. streptocerca, M. ozzardi, and Brugia timori.

Filarial worms:

Wuchereria bancrofti:

Life cycle:

The Culex, Aedes and Anopheles species of mosquitoes serve up as the intermediate host and vectors of W. bancrofti. In the human host, the adult worms take up the residence in the lymphatics where they lay their microfilariae. The microfilariae discharged in the lymph, find their way to the thoracic duct and then to the blood circulation.

Morphology:

The adults are lengthened, thread-like Norms, measuring 35 to 40 x 0.1 mm (m ale) and 90 to 100 x 0.25 mm (female). The microfilariae exhibit nuclei in their body after staining and different internal structures can as well be seen. A thin and delicate sheath encloses the organism. The anterior end is round and blunt. The posterior end finishes into a point which is free of nuclei.

Pathology and Clinical Symptoms:

Most of the adult patients show no symptoms. At times lym phangitis is rigorous and is accompanied by headache and high fever. Moreover to lymphatic involvement, several patients might exhibit epididymitis and orchitis. In the intervening time, repeated attacks of acute lym phangitis might carry on. The classical symptoms of this phase are elephantiasis, chyluria and hydrocele.

Diagnosis:

The assessment of fresh Giemsa-stained blood for W. bancrofti microfilariae serves up as the laboratory diagnostic process of choice. Samples must be collected throughout night time, as this organism represents nocturnal periodicity. Serologic techniques are as well available commercially.

Treatment:

Diethyl-carbamazine citrate (DEC) and ivermectin (Mectizan) have recognized efficiency against W. bancrofti. In patients having elephantiasis, surgical processes are needed as chemotherapy that can't reverse the fibrotic modifications.

Prevention:

Dissimilar to malaria, a short stay in an endemic region is generally of no importance. Mass chemotherapy having DEC is an efficient process of controlling the infection in a given population.

Onchocerca volvulus:

Throughout a blood meal, an infected blackfly (that is, genus Simulium) introduces third-phase filarial larvae to the skin of the human host, where they penetrate to the bite wound. In subcutaneous tissues the larvae build up into adult filariae that generally reside in nodules in subcutaneous connective tissues Adults can live in the nodules for around 15 years. A few nodules might have many male and female worms. Females measure 33 to 50 cm in length and 270 to 400 µm in diameter, whereas males measure 19 to 42 mm by 130 to 210 µm.  In the subcutaneous nodules, the female worms are able of generating microfilariae for around 9 years.  The microfilariae, measuring 220 to 360 µm by 5 to 9 µm and unsheathed, encompass a life-span that might reach 2-years. They are occasionally found in peripheral blood, urine and sputum however are typically found in the skin and in the lymphatics of the connective tissues. A blackfly ingests the microfilariae throughout a blood meal. After ingestion, the microfilariae migrate from the black fly's midgut during the haemocoel to the thoracic muscles. There the microfilariae build up into first-phase larvae and afterward into third-phase infective larvae. The third-phase infective larvae migrate to the blackfly's proboscis and can infect the other human when the fly takes a blood meal.

Loa loa:

The vector for Loa loa filariasis is flies from the two species of genus Chrysops, C. silacea and C. dimidiata. Throughout a blood meal, an infected fly (genus Chrysops, day-biting flies) introduces third-phase filarial larvae to the skin of the human host, where they penetrate to the bite wound. The larvae build up into adults which generally reside in the subcutaneous tissue. The female worm's measure 40 to 70 mm in length and 0.5 mm in diameter, whereas the males measure 30 to 34 mm in length and 0.35 to 0.43 mm in diameter. Adults generate microfilariae measuring 250 to 300 µm by 6 to 8 µm that are sheathed and encompass diurnal periodicity. Microfilariae have been recovered from the spinal fluids, urine and sputum.  Throughout the day they are found in peripheral blood, however during the non-circulation stage, they are found in the lungs. The fly ingests microfilariae throughout a blood meal. After ingestion, the microfilariae lose their sheaths and migrate from the fly's midgut via the haemocoel to the thoracic muscles of the arthropod. There the microfilariae build up into first-phase larvae and subsequently into third-phase infective larvae. The third-phase infective larvae migrate to the fly's proboscis and can infect the other human when the fly takes a blood meal.

Brugia malayi:

The typical vector for Brugia malayi filariasis is mosquito species from the genera Mansonia and Aedes.  Throughout a blood meal, an infected mosquito introduces third-phase filarial larvae to the skin of the human host, where they penetrate to the bite wound. They build up into adults which generally reside in the lymphatics. The adult worms look like those of Wuchereria bancrofti however are smaller.  Female worms measure 43 to 55 mm in length by 130 to 170 µm in width and males measure 13 to 23 mm in length by 70 to 80 µm in width.  Adults generate microfilariae, measuring 177 to 230 µm in length and 5 to 7 µm in width that are sheathed and encompass nocturnal periodicity. The microfilariae migrate to the lymph and enter the blood stream reaching the peripheral blood. A mosquito ingests the microfilariae throughout a blood meal. After ingestion, the microfilariae lose their sheaths and work their way via the wall of the proventriculus and cardiac part of the midgut to reach out the thoracic muscles. There the microfilariae build up into first-phase larvae and afterward into third-phase larvae. The third phase larvae migrate via the haemocoel to the mosquito's prosbocis and can infect the other human if the mosquito takes a blood meal.

Clinical characteristic and Pathology of Lymphatic filariasis:

Lymphatic filariasis most generally comprises of asymptomatic microfilaremia. Several patients build up lymphatic dysfunction causing the elephantiasis and lymphedema (often in the lower extremities) and by Wuchereria bancrofti, hydrocele and scrotal elephantiasis. Episodes of febrile lymphangitis and lymphadenitis might take place. Persons who have recently arrived in the disease-endemic regions can build up a febrile episode of lymphadenitis and lymphangitis. An extra manifestation of the filarial infection, mainly in Asia, is pulmonary tropical eosinophilia syndrome having fever, nocturnal cough and wheezing and eosinophilia.  Onchocerciasis can cause dermatitis, pruritus, onchocercomata and lymphadenopathies.  The most serious manifestation comprises of ocular lesions which can progress to blindness. Loiasis (Loa loa) is frequently asymptomatic. Episodic angioedema (that is, Calabar swellings) and sub-conjunctival migration of an adult worm can take place.  Infections through Mansonella perstans, which is often asymptomatic, can be related by angioedema, fever, pruritus, headaches, arthralgias and neurologic manifestations. Mansonella streptocerca can cause skin manifestations comprising papular eruptions, pruritus and pigmentation changes. Eosinophilia is frequently prominent in the filarial infections. Mansonella ozzardi can cause symptoms which comprise arthralgias, fever, headaches, pulmonary symptoms, adenopathy, hepatomegaly and pruritus.

Treatment and control:

Ivermectin is efficient in killing the larvae, however doesn't influence the adult worm. Preventive measures comprise vector control, treatment of infected individuals and the avoidance of black fly.

Trichinella spiralis:

Historical aspect:

In the year 1835, a man died of tuberculosis in St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Dr Paget, a first-year student, carried out the autopsy and noticed fine hard white inclusions in the muscles. Identical inclusions had been noticed by doctors from time to time in the past; however were attributed to common place muscle calcification that rapidly blunted the dissecting scalpel. Dr Paget examined the lesions having a hand lens and rapidly acknowledged their worm-like structure. The name 'Trichina spiralis' was recommended. The name Trichina had by now been given to a specific fly, though, and the name was later modified to 'Trichinella'. The discovery of the parasite was proposed by the famous biologist and palaeontologist Richard Owen.

Life cycle:

a) Infection takes place by ingesting encysted larvae in the undercooked meat.

b) The larvae excyst and build up to adults in the small intestine.

c) Adults join to the intestinal mucosa and being to discharge larvae in one week. The adults live for around 4 weeks and might discharge more than 1000 larvae. 

d) Microscopy of the Trichinella spiralis.

e) Larvae go in the intestinal wall and move to muscle tissue where they encyst in the individual cells (that is, nurse cells).  Active muscles, like the diaphragm and tongue, often include the greatest numbers of larvae.

Symptoms or Pathology:

Infection by Trichinella spiralis might be asymptomatic, particularly in light infections. Adults in the intestine might cause diarrhea, abdominal pain and vomiting.  Larvae moving to the tissues might cause facial swelling, muscle pain, fever, splinter hemorrhages (beneath fingernails) or rashes.

Heavy infections might lead to heart problems or central nervous system participation. Large numbers of larvae in other muscles might lead to the soreness and weakness which frequently lessens over time.

Prevention:

a) Meat must be well boiled or roasted carefully. 

b) Significance of meat inspection. The diaphragm of a slaughtered animal is examined (that is, the piece of muscle is flattened among two glass slides and inspected by employing transillumination). This method (that is, trichinoscopy) is not as good for Trichinella pseudospiralis as it is not surrounded by a capsule and is simply missed. 

c) Pig food (that might comprise infected rats) must be boiled for 30 minutes.

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