Chromosomal aberrations

Chromosomal aberrations:

During the procedure of meiosis one or more chromosomes might break. Such broken fragments of chromosomes might be subjected to many modified organizations:

a) A small broken fragment might become lost (i.e., deletion)
b) The broken fragment might become joined to the end of other chromosome (i.e., translocation)
c) The fragment might become turned around and rejoin the chromosome (i.e., inversion)
d) They might become inserted into other chromosome (i.e., duplication)

All the above mentioned modifications might change the genomes of gametes.

At times a pair of homologous chromosomes might fail to separate in meiosis. It will outcome in gametes with one chromosome less or one chromosome more, than usual. The progeny formed from such gametes are termed as polysomics. They will have less or more chromosomes than normal.

In certain situations, entire set of homologous chromosomes do not separate in meiosis. It outcomes in diploid gametes. Fusion of these gametes with a normal haploid gamete gives increase to progeny with a triploid chromosome number. This situation is termed as polyploidy. It is generally observed in plants. Polyploids are generally more vigorous. Such forms can give increase to new species.

While recombinations give regular variations, mutations enrich such variations. Phenomena like chromosomal abberrations, polysomics and polyploidy while, found beneficial to the organisms, give new directions for speciation and further evolution.


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