Antibiotics and Chemotherapy

Antibiotics and Chemotherapy:

Antibiotics are special and exclusive type of chemotherapeutics agents acquired from living organisms like bacteria or fungi. The term antibiotic refers to a metabolic product of one microorganism that in very small quantities is detrimental or inhibitory to other microorganisms. The first antibiotic which was discovered was Penicillin from fungus, Pencillium sp. by Alexander Flemming in the year1929. As then hundreds of antibiotic substances have been isolated.

Antibiotics are of two types:

1. Broad spectrum antibiotics can demolish or inhibit numerous different species of pathogens.
2. Narrow spectrum antibiotics can demolish particularly some or few species of pathogens.

The mode of accomplishment of antibiotics might be either bacteriostatic or bactericidal. The previous destroys the microbial cells whereas the latter displays the growth of them. Furthermore, the antibiotics might inhibit cell wall synthesis or disrupt the cell wall or harm the cytoplasmic membrane or slow down the protein synthesis and nucleic acid synthesis (i.e., purine and pyrimidines); inhibit the particular enzyme systems and also inhibit the metabolic pathway of pathogens via competitive inhibition of the key enzymes.

Various notable antibiotics are Streptomycin, Ampicillin, Tetracyclin and Erythromycin and so on. Some antifungal antibiotics are Griseofulvin and Imidazole and so on. Some antiviral antibiotics are Amantidine and Cycloguanosine.

The more promising chemotherapeutic agent for treating viral diseases is the Interferon. Interferons are glycoprotein molecules secreted by the leucocytes and fibroblasts. Few of the antitumour antibiotics are of the anthromycin group.


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