#### Emergent Properties

Introduction to Emergent Properties of System

After having a look of the characteristics of a system some emergent properties of a whole system  are also defined.  The relationships among the components  of a system show that a system will be in the working condition when all its components are assembled to make it as a whole. So  a system has some properties that are properties of  a whole.  These properties are called  as the emergent properties. These emergent properties are defined for the whole  system  when all its parts are summed up to make it one. These properties are not related specifically to any one component. That why these properties are described for the complete whole sole integrated system.

It is difficult to know the emergent properties in advance, they can only be measured once the system have been integrated to form the complete system. For an example the  emergent properties depend on the reliability of the system components and  the  relationships between  the components  .

There are  two  types of emergent properties.

1. Functional Properties : Show  its  affect when all  the components of  system are assembled to  work together  to achieve the goal.  For  example a pen  has the  functional property.  Because we write with it ( the function of the pen) when all  its components are integrated.

2. Non functional Properties :  are related to the behaviour of the system in its operational environment . some  of the non functional  properties are reliability , performance etc.

Reliability is a complex concept which must always be considered at the system level. The components in  system  are interdependent, so  failures in one  component can be propagated through the system  and effect the operation of  components. Reliability of system can be measured by hardware reliability ( the  probability of hardware failing and the  time to  repair that component) software reliability ( the probability of producing  an incorrect output by a software component )  and operator  reliability ( probability that the operator of a system  will make  an error.)  when any  hardware component or physical  part breaks down  then it will fail  to achieve its objective  until  it is repaired or replaced. So until that part is repaired , the  reliability of the system will  be very low  or less . similarly , in software  is producing  the incorrect output again and again then its reliability is not good. Similar case can be seen in operator reliability.

All of these are linked together, hardware failure can  cause  the software to behave  in  unpredictable manner . and it is  quite possible that  the operator  may get irritate by the  failure or hardware. And he can  make  the errors and more and more due to this behaviour of  hardware and these more error   lead to more hardware failures.  Therefore, a situation can occur were a single subsystem failure that is  recoverable can rapidly develop into a  serious  problem  requiring  a complete system shutdown.

Like reliability, performance of the system can also be measured.

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