The Periodic Table, Chemistry tutorial


You are conscious which scientists, from the opening have attempted to organize the information they gain during their explanations and researches. Development of the periodic law and the periodic table of the components is one of such effort. This has brought array in the study of the huge chemistry of more than a hundred elements recognized now. It is thus relatively natural that you should start your study of inorganic chemistry with the study of the periodic table. Now, you will be starting from the very beginning, that is, with the very first attempt made at categorization of the components. By the mid- 19th century, more than 60 components were recognized and many more were creature discovered. The speed of finding of the new components was so fast that the chemists started wondering "where it would all guide to"? Has character provided a edge to the number of components? And if so, how would one know about it? Throughout this period, it was also realized that assured groups of components exhibited parallel chemical and physical properties. Was it a simple accident or did a relationship exist among the properties of the components? Efforts to reply such nosy questions ultimately resulted in the growth of the periodic table.


One of the earliest attempts to classify components was to separate them into non metals and metals. Metallic components we all recognize have some particular properties which comprise:

1) Malleability, imply that they can be beaten into thin sheets for instance is done whenever buckets are being formed.

2) Encompass lustrous shinning appearance, for instance iron.

3) Metallic components can as well be drawn into wire for instance is completed when making electric wire. This property is identified as ductility.

4) Metallic components also structure basic oxides.

5) They can also conduct electricity and warmth. If you grip a section of metal in your hand and place one end into fire or in contact with any scorching object, your hand will sense the heat as it journey from the point of contact with heat through the metal to your hand. Likewise if you grip one end of the metal through that an electric current is passed, you will be jolted by the current that tour during the metal to your hand.

In contrast to metallic components, non metallic components have no attributes exterior. They are fragile which is they crack effortlessly. They are meager conductors of heat and electricity. They structure sour oxides. As further components were revealed and information of chemical and physical properties was polished, it became clear that inside these two separations of components there existed families of components whose properties diverse scientifically from each other. Moreover, certain components, the metalloids possessed properties dividing between the two partitions. Thus, attempts were made to search for further categorizations.

Attempts Made By J W Dobereiner:

In the year 1829, J W Dobereiner noticed that there exist some particular groups of three elements which he known as TRIADS. He as well noticed that elements in triad not only had like properties, however as well the atomic weight of the middle element was roughly an average of the atomic weights of another two elements of the triad.

Some of the illustration cited by him was: Li, Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba, S, Se, Te and Cl. Br, I though, Doberieiner's relationship seems to work merely for some elements, He was the first to indicate a methodical relationship among the elements.

Attempts Made by A. De chancourtois:

 In the year 1862, A. de Chanourtois arranged the elements that were recognized at that time in sort of increasing atomic weight on a line that spiraled approximately a cylinder from bottom to top.

Attempts Made By John Newlands:

In the year 1864, John Newlands, an English Chemist reported his "LAW OF OCTAVES" He recommended that whenever the elements were organized in order of increasing atomic weight, each and every 8th element would have properties alike to the first element. For instance, he arranged the elements in the given manner:









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Therefore we see K resembles Na and Li, Ca resembles Mg and Be, Al resembles B, Si resembles C and so on. He stated it the "Law of octaves" for the reason that he says the sequence of repetition revealed by the elements is similar to that shown by octaves of music somewhere each eight note resembles the first in octaves of music. Newlands "Law of octaves" was rejected for two reasons. First of all, it did not hold good for elements heavier than Ca. Secondly, he thought that there existed some mystical relationship between chemistry and music.

The Work of Lothar Meyer:

Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer played key role in the progress of the periodic law as it is acknowledged these days.

In the year 1869, Lothar Meyer stated that when physical properties such as atomic volume, boiling point and so on were plotted against atomic weight, a periodically recurring curve was attained in each and every case.

The behaviour of atomic volume is periodic. It goes via circles, dropping from a sharp maximum to a minimum and then sharply increasing once more. Each and every of the cycles is stated a period. The position of element on the peak and in the troughs has a significant correlation with their chemical reactivity. The component of the peaks (example alkali metals) is the most reactive. Those in the troughs (example noble metals) are naturally less reactive.

Mendeleev's Periodic Law:

In contrast to Lothar Meyer, Mendeleev used chemical properties similar to valence and formula of hydrides, chloride, and oxides of the elements to demonstrate his periodic law.

According to Mendeleev's periodic law, whenever the elements are arranged successively in the order of increasing atomic weight, a periodic repetition, which is, periodicity in properties is observed. In horizontal rows elements arranged by Mendeleev and vertical columns in order of rising atomic weight consequently which elements having alike properties were kept in the equal vertical column. Mendeleev periodic table of 1871 against each and every element is the value of atomic weight however Lothar Meyer and Newlands also contributed in developing the periodic laws; the main credit goes to Mendeleev because of the given reasons:

He included along with his table, a completed study of the properties of all recognized elements and correlated a broad range of chemical and physical properties with atomic weights.

He kept his primary ambition of arranging alike elements in the similar group quite clear. Thus he was bold sufficient in reversing the order of some particular elements. For instance, iodine with lower atomic weight than that of tellurium (group VI) was placed in group VII along with chlorine, bromine and fluorine since of similarities in properties.

He also approved the atomic weight of some particular elements to consist of them in proper groups. For instance, he corrected the atomic weight of beryllium (from 13.5 to 9) and indium (from 76 to 114) without doing any actual dimension. His ability was proved correct as be and la with equivalent weight of 38 and 4.5 correspondingly are actually trivalent and bivalent.

Maintenance to his primary ambition of arranging alike elements in the same vertical column (group), he comprehend that several of the elements were at rest undiscovered and thus left their spaces vacant in the table and predicted their properties. He predicted the subsistence in nature of over ten innovative elements and predicted properties of three of them, example eka silicon (germanium) ,eka-aluminium (gallium) and eka-boron (scandium)from the properties of recognized elements nearby them. When these elements were ultimately discovered, Mendeleev prediction verified to be astonishingly accurate. This you can see for yourself by comparing the computation and noticed properties of eka-aluminium (gallium) and eka silicon (germanium). The legality of Mendeleev periodic law was dramatically and conclusively proven by the discovery of three out of the more than ten elements predicted by Mendeleev. The first to be revealed was eka-aluminium that was revealed by Lecoq de Bois baudran in the year 1875.


Table shows the Comparison of predicted and observed properties of eka-aluminium (gallium) and eka silicon (germanium)

Lecoq de Boisbaudran stated the component gallium and believed its density was 4.7 x 103. Mendeleev on examination this wrote to Lecoq de Boisbaudran telling him that the lot he said regarding the new element was accurate except its density. On additional location of the metal, Lecoq de Boisbaudran revealed that Mendeleev was right that the density of gallium was 5.8 x103 kg just similar to it had been expected by Mendeleev.

Additional verification of the law came through the works of Lars Fredrick Nilson who revealed Scandium and Winkler who revealed germanium. Both elements were originated to have properties equivalent to those of earlier predicted for them by Mendeleev.

The progress of the periodic law is an outstanding instance where careful observation, critical analysis of accessible data without any scientific foresight and preconceived notions led to the discovery of a fundamental law of nature. Therefore when Mendeleev arranged elements in order of rising atomic weights, he decisively analyzed the properties of the then acknowledged elements. He revealed that the properties of any element are an average of the properties of its neighbors in the periodic table. On this basis, he expected the properties of undiscovered elements symbolized the gaps in the table.

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