Synthetic Dyes-Fibres, Chemistry tutorial

Synthetic Dyes-fibers

The 1st human-made (synthetic) organic dye, mauveine, was determined serendipitously via William Henry Perkin in the year 1856. Numerous thousands of synthetic dyes have since been arranged.

Synthetic dyes rapidly replaced the traditional natural dyes. They price less, they presented a huge range of new colors, and they informed better properties to the dyed substances. Dyes are now classified according to how they are utilized in the dyeing procedure.

Approximately all the colors that we see nowadays are Synthetic dyes. Synthetic dyes are utilized everywhere in all from clothes to paper, from food to firewood Synthetic dyes nowadays contain developed into a multibillion dollar industry. They are extensively employed for dyeing and printing in a broad range of industries. There are over 10,000 dyes, and the annual production worldwide, exceeds over 7 × 105 metric tons. Cheaper to create, brighter, more color-fast, and simple to pertain to fabric, such synthetic dyes modified the playing field. Scientists raced to originate stunning new colors and before long, dyed fabric was obtainable to all, and natural dyes had happen to obsolete for mainly applications.

The synthetic dyes can be symbolized according to the chemical structure of their meticulous chromophoric group. For instance, diphenylmethane derivatives, triphenylmethane complexes oxazine compounds, xanthene compounds, Azo dyes are one of the mainly admired varieties of synthetic dyes. Nowadays it is being utilized up to 90% in the dyeing units, as they are versatile and easy to synthesize. Most of the synthetic dyes through a few immunity are aromatic organic compounds that can be divided into groups as non-ionic (oil soluble), cationic, and anionic. A typical instance of Cationic dye is Methyl violet, as Azo dyes are anionic dyes.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Synthetic Fibre


  • Strong
  • Synthetic fibres are sturdy so they can take up serious things simply.
  • Retain their unique shape
  • Synthetic fibres keep their unique shape so it's simple to wash and wear.
  • Elastic
  • Can simply be extended out.
  • Soft
  • Synthetic fibres are usually soft so they are utilized in clothing substances.
  • Colour
  • Varieties of colours are accessible as they are produced.
  • Cost
  • Clothes complete via synthetic fibres are usually cheaper than those made via natural fibres.


  • Doesn't absorb moistures
  • Synthetic fibres don't absorb sweat, trapping heat in our body.
  • Rough feel
  • Synthetic fibres may give rough feel, making it inappropriate for pyjamas, underwear, and so on

Several of the most significant properties of synthetic substances are as follows:

 1. Tensile strength

2. Action of water

3. Action of heat and flame

4. Thermal conductivity

5. Electrical conductivity.

The helpfulness or else of a synthetic substance based upon the subsequent properties.

1. Tensile strength:

This property provides us and thought of the strength a substance illustrates when it is dragged. The pulling stress needed to break a substance is termed its tensile strength:

The superior the tensile strength of a fibre, the better is the load its yarn can stand. In respect of fibres, tensile strength is communicated in g/tex, where tex is the mass in grams of 1000 m of the fibre or its fiber

The tensile strengths of dissimilar fibres can be evaluated in the subsequent way:


Do this movement in class. Tie one end of a cotton filament to a hook fixed to a stiff body and the other conclusion to a pan of an equilibrium. Put several weights on the pan and enlarge the weight in little steps, till the thread breaks.

As we know the total weight, as well as that of the pan, needed to break the thread. Replicate the activity via other types of fibre, for example, wool, silk, nylon and polyester, of alike thickness and the similar length. The dissimilar weights needed to break the threads will provide proportional values of their tensile strength.

Comparing tensile strengths of threads by executing this activity, we will realize why nylon is utilized to create ropes.

2. Action of water:

Natural fibres absorb water quite efficiently whereas synthetic fibres don't. Other synthetic polymers as well don't absorb water. We have already learnt that clothes made of fabrics that absorb water are more relaxed to wear than clothes made of materials that don't.


We have learnt how to discover the moisture-absorption capacity of a fabric. Hold the cloth tight on a metal ring or a bangle and add water drop wise in the centre of the ring. Count the number of drops till the soaked water touches the ring. Through a stopwatch, compute the time taken for this to occur Do this activity for dissimilar types of fabric, such as nylon, polyester and cotton, to compare their water-absorption capacities.

Determining the moisture-absorption capacity of a fabric

3. Action of heat and flame:

Most synthetic polymers are heat sensitive. On being heated, they melt, and at higher temperatures they burn. Vegetable fibres are heat resistant-they don't melt. Nor do they catch fire as simply. Animal fibres are heat sensitive.

We know that several polymers are heat-set whereas others aren't. We can learn all this via performing the subsequent activities through the help of an adult.


1. Bring a piece of cotton cloth near a flame. The cloth will not melt but will burn whenever brought extremely close to or into the flame. Then bring a piece of polyester or nylon cloth near the flame. It will soften and then catch fire. Repeat the experiment through numerous plastic materials as polythene, PVC; and so on. They will as well melt previous to burning.

2. Fold any cotton cloth and run a hot iron over it. Then try to iron out the fold-we will succeed. Then try to do the similar through a polyester or nylon cloth-we won't succeed so simply. This is since polyester and nylon are heat-set.

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