Classification of Dyes and Fibres, Chemistry tutorial

Classification of Dyes and Fibres

Different fibers needed dissimilar kinds of dyes. In India approximately each corner of a limited market we will discover a dyer dying clothes mostly chunni a kind of extended scarf worn through Indian ethnic dress salwar kameez. Mainly of the people who aren't conscious of textile colours depend on the local dyers. Frequently it is seen that the dyes aren't fast that is approaches out after few washes. This article is to educate about dissimilar kinds of dyes for diverse fabrics. Standard dyeing can be seen in several large textile industries where special dye directors and engineers receive care of the dyeing procedure. There are different kinds of dyes as Acid, Azoic, Disperse, Vat and so on. Dyes for wool that is a protein fiber and dyes for cotton that is a cellulose fiber or mixes will be dissimilar. Dyeing can be complete in the fiber phase, yarn stage, fabric stage or terminated produce phase depending on the requirement. The subsequent table will provide we clear in order about Dyes for different fabrics and their traits.

Acid dyes

A group of dyes utilized on wool, additional animal fibers, and several manufactured fibers. Acid dyes are hardly ever utilized on cotton or linen because this procedure needs a mordant. Acid dyes are extensively utilized on nylon whenever elevated washfastness is needed. In several cases, even senior washfastness can be attained via after treatment through fixatives.

Natural dyes

Direct Printing, it is the mainly common approach to pertain a color pattern into a fabric. If complete on painted fabric, it is recognized as overprinting.

The wished example is manufactured via pushing dye on the fabric in a paste form. To assemble the print paste, a thickening agent is adjoined to a bounded amount of water and dye is dissolved in it. Previous starch was termed as a thickening manager for printing. Such day's gums or alginates obtained from seaweed are preferred as they permit enhanced diffusion of color and are easier to wash. Most pigment printing is complete by no thickeners since the mixing up of resins, solvents and water manufactures thickening anyhow.

Basic (cationic) dyes

Basic dyes are water-soluble and are mostly utilized to dye acrylic fibers. They are frequently utilized through a caustic. A caustic is a chemical manager that is utilized to set dyes on fabrics via shaping an inexplicable compound through the dye. By mordant, essential dyes are utilized for cotton, polyesters, acrylics, linen, acetate, nylon, and modacrylics. Other than acrylic, essential dyes aren't extremely appropriate for any other fiber as they aren't speedy to light, washing or perspiration. Consequently they are generally employed for giving an after treatment to the fabrics that have previously been dyed via acid dyes.

Synthetic dyes

Synthetic dyes are classify depend upon their chemical composition and the method of their demand in the dyeing procedure.

Direct (substantive) Dyes

Direct dyes color cellulose fibers straight with no utilize of mordants. They are utilized for dyeing wool, silk, nylon, cotton, rayon and so on. Such dyes aren't extremely dazzling and have reduced fastness to washing even although they are fairly speedy to light.

Disperse dyes

Scatter dyes are water unsolvable. Such dyes are delicately ground and are accessible as a stick or a powder that obtains separated in water. Such particles melt in the fibers and express color to them. Such dyes were at first expanded for the dyeing of cellulose acetate but today they are utilized to dye nylon, acrylic fibers, and cellulose triacetate as well.

Sulfur dyes

Sulfur Dyes are insoluble and made soluble via the assist of caustic soda and sodium sulfide. Dyeing is complete at elevated temperature by huge quantities of salt so that the color penetrates into the fiber. After dyeing the fabric is oxidized for obtaining wished shades via revelation to air or through using chemicals. Surplus dyes and chemicals are eliminated via thorough washing. Such dyes are speedy to light, washing and perspiration and are regularly utilized for cotton and linen.

Pigment dyes

Even though pigments aren't dyes in a true logic, they are extensively utilized for coloring fabrics as cotton, wool and other manmade fibers suitable to their outstanding light fastness. They don't contain any affinity to the fibers and are affixed to the fabric by the assist of resins. After dyeing, the fabrics are subjected to elevated temperatures.

Mordant dyes

The mordant or chrome dyes are acidic in nature. Sodium or potassium bichromate is utilized through them in the dyebath or after the method of dyeing is completed. This is finished for obtaining the connecting act of the chrome. They are mostly utilized for wool that obtains a good color fastness after behavior by mordant dyes. They are as well utilized for cotton, linen, silk, rayon and nylon but are fewer effectual for them.

Vat dyes

Vat dyes are unsolvable in water and can't dye fibers openly. Though, they can be completed soluble via diminution in alkaline solution that permits them to join to the textile fibers. Following oxidation or revelation to air reinstates the dye to its unsolvable form. Indigo is the unique vat dye. Such dyes are the speediest dyes for cotton, linen and rayon. They are utilized through mordants to dye other fabrics these as wool, nylon, acrylics, polyesters and modacrylics.

Reactive dyes

Reactive dyes react through fiber fragments to shape a chemical compound. Such dyes, they are either applied from alkaline solution or from impartial solutions that are then alkalized in a separate procedure. Sometimes heat treatment is as well utilized for expanding dissimilar shades. After dyeing, the fabric is washed well via soap so as to eliminate any unfixed dye. Reactive dyes were at first utilized for cellulose fibers only but now their dissimilar kinds are utilized for wool, silk, nylon, acrylics and their blends as well.

Macromolecular dyes

A group of essentially colored polymers. They are helpful both as polymers and as dyes by elevated color yield. The chromophores fit the recognized CI classes, that is, azo, anthraquinone, and so on, even though not every CI classes are symbolized. Employed for mass dyeing, hair dyes, writing inks, and so on.


Fiber or fibre is classes of substances that are constant filaments or are in disconnected elongated portions, alike to lengths of thread. They are extremely significant in the biology of together plants and animals, for holding tissues mutually Human utilizes for fibers are varied. They can be spun into threads, string or rope, utilized as a constituent of amalgamated substances or matted into pieces to make products such as paper and felt. Fibers are frequently utilized in the manufacture of other substances. Synthetic fibers can be created extremely economically and in huge amounts evaluated to natural fibers, but natural fibers enjoy several advantages, such as soothe, over their man-made counterparts.

Types of Fiber:

Commonly 2 kinds of Textile fiber.

1. Natural fiber.

2. Manmade fiber.

Natural fiber

Natural fibers contain those produced through plants, animals, and geological processes. They are biodegradable over time. They can be classified according to their origin.

Man made fiber

Synthetic or man-made fibers usually approach from synthetic substances such as petrochemicals. But several kinds of synthetic fibers are manufactured from natural cellulose; together with rayon, modal, and the more freshly expanded Lyocell. Cellulose-depend fibers are of 2 kinds, regenerated or pure cellulose these as from the cupro-ammonium procedure and customized and derivitized cellulose such as the cellulose acetates.

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