Epidermal Tissue System

Introduction to Epidermal Tissue System

The outermost covering of plants is termed as epidermal tissue system. It contains epidermis, stomata and epidermal outgrowths.  Epidermis is usually formed of single layer of parenchymatous cells efficiently arranged with no intercellular spaces. But it is interrupted via stomata. In leaves a number of specialized cells that surround the stomata are termed as the guard cells. Chloroplasts are exists only in the guard cells of the epidermis. Other epidermal cells generally do not comprise chloroplasts. The outer wall of epidermis is generally covered via cuticle.

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Diagram:  Epidermal tissue system

A minute pore that is surrounded through two guard cells is termed as stomata. The stomata take place mainly in the epidermis of leaves. In a number of plants like sugarcane, the guard cells are bounded through a number of special cells. They are different from other epidermal cells. These cells are termed subsidiary / accessory cells. Trichomes and root hairs are a number of epidermal outgrowths. The unicellular / multicellular appendages which originate from the epidermal cells are termed as trichomes. Trichomes might be branched or unbranched. Rhizodermis comprise two types of epidermal cells - long cells and short cells. The short cells are termed as trichoblasts. Root hairs are generated from these trichoblasts.

Functions of epidermal tissue system

1. Epidermal tissue system in the shoot checks excessive loss of water because of the existence of cuticle.

 2. This tissue system protects the underlying tissues.

3. Stomata include in transpiration and gaseous exchange.

4. Trichomes are as well useful in the dispersal of seeds and fruits.

5. Root hairs absorb water and mineral salts from the soil.

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