Distinguishing features of Gymnosperms

Distinguishing features of Gymnosperms:

A. Gymnosperms are woody perennial that are mostly trees and seldom shrubs.

B. Life cycle of gymnosperms exhibits heteromorphic alternation of generations.

C. They form an intermediate group among Angiosperms and pteridophytes that is, they are much advanced than pteridophytes however are primitive than angiosperms.

D. The plant body is sporophyte (diploid) mainly a tree with well developed roots, stem and leaves.

F. The sporophyte bears two kinds of fertile leaves, the microsporophyll which generates microspores and megasporophyll which generates megaspores.

G. Mostly the spores are classified into strobili or compact cones.

H. Spores on germination build up into gametophytes that are much reduced, microscopic and reliant on sporophyte.

I. Ovules are nude.

J. Pollination is generally by wind (that is, anemophilous).

K. Fertilization includes only one fusion. Female gametophyte gives nutrition to the developing embryo. The endosperm (that is the female gametophyte) is a pre-fertilization tissue and is haploid.

L. Seeds are nude and not embedded in fruit.

M. Vessels are not present in xylem (apart from Gnetales)

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