Passive transport

Passive transport:

Passive transport is as well termed as passive diffusion. In passive transport, the substances move to lower concentrations from higher concentrations usually without the help of any protein. The transport carries on until the concentration of the substance becomes similar on both the sides of the membrane. O2, CO2 and urea can simply diffuse across the membrane.

Facilitated Diffusion:

Although, the concentration of specific hydrophilic substances such as glucose is high across the membrane, they cannot go through the membrane and require a carrier for their transport. Such type of a transport is known as facilitated diffusion. The proteins included in such types of processes are known as carrier proteins. Carrier proteins are exists in all biological membranes. A number of significant characteristics of carrier proteins are

A. Carrier proteins make easy transport from high concentrations of the solute to low concentrations.

B. Carrier proteins speed up the process of acquiring equilibrium

C. Carrier proteins do not require energy for their transport.

D. Carrier proteins are extremely specific in nature.

Some common instances are glucose transporter and anion transporters in RBC (red blood cell) membranes. Carrier proteins are categorized into three main types:

1) Uniporters:
It transports single solute from one side of the membrane to another.


                                                                       Diagram: Uniporters

2) Symporters:
It transports two different solute molecules simultaneously in similar direction.


                                                                        Diagram: Symporters

3) Antiporters:
It transports two dissimilar solute molecules in reverse directions.


                                                                           Diagram: Antiporters


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