Biosynthesis of cholesterol

Biosynthesis of cholesterol:

Significant intermediates of cholesterol Biosynthesis and enzymes included.

1. Formation of acetyl CoA:

A molecule of acetic acid combines along with coenzyme A (CoA) to generate Acetyl CoA in the existence of an enzyme Acetyl CoA synthetase.

2. Formation of acetoacetyl CoA:

Two molecules of acetyl-CoA condense to create an acetoacetyl- CoA molecule, catalyzed via the enzyme “thiolase”.

3. Formation of HMG CoA:

The acetoacetyl-CoA further goes through condensation with one more molecule of acetyl-CoA to create HMG-CoA (3-Hydroxy 3-Methyl Glutaryl-CoA). The enzyme that mediates this reaction is known as HMG- CoA synthetase.

4. Formation of mevalonate:
The HMG-CoA is gets reduced to create mevalonate by NADPH + H+ dependent reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). In the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis this is the rate limiting enzyme.

5. So mevalonate formed is then transformed to squalene by various steps.

6. Squalene, along with the formation of several intermediates at last gives rise to the end product cholesterol.

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                                                         Diagram: Biosynthesis of Cholesterol


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