Meaning and definition: planning may be defined as deciding in advance what is to be done in future. It is the process of thinking before doing. It involves determination of goals as well as the activities required to be under taken to achieve the goals. In the planning process manager anticipate the future and accordingly decide what activities must be under taken. Planning is deciding in advance what to do how to do it when and by whom. In other words planning bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to go. It is demonstrated in the following diagram.

According to James Lundy," it means the determination of what is to be done how and where it is to be done that is to do it and how results are to be evaluated".

According to Koontz and O'Donnell," planning is deciding in advance what to do how to do it when to do it and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. It makes it possible for things to occur which no otherwise would happen".

According to Henry Fayola," Planning is deciding the best alternatives among others to perform different managerial operations in order to achieve the pre determined goals".

According to George R.Terry," planning is the selection and relating of facts and the making and using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formulation of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired results.

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