Which of the following is a common cause of meningitis in

1. Which of the following is associated with serious infection of the meninges?

· Clogging of blood vessels

· Increased pressure within the skull

· Decreased cerebrospinal fluid flow

· Impaired central nervous system function

· All of the above

2. Which of the following is NOT true of the nervous system?

· Consists of central and peripheral systems

· Central nervous system is composed of brain and spinal cord

· Ganglia are part of brain

· Meninges is membrane that covers brain and spinal cord

· Normally free of microbes

3. Which of the following is a common cause of meningitis in non-immunized young children?

· Streptococcus pneumoniae

· Escherichia coli

· Staphylococcus

· Haemophilus influenzae

· None of the above

4. A complication of infection with this organism (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome) can occur if the organism becomes widely distributed in the body, leading to endotoxin shock and death. What is this organism?

· Haemophilus influenzae

· Neisseria meningitidis

· Streptococcus pneumoniae

· Listeria monocytogenes

· None of the above

5. What is the microorganism that causes most cases of meningitis among adults?

· Haemophilus influenzae

· Neisseria meningitidis

· Listeria monocytogenes

· Streptococcus pneumoniae

6. Which of the following bacteria that may cause meningitis is Gram positive and therefore does not cause endotoxin shock in infected individuals?

· Escherichia coli

· Neisseria meningitidis

· Listeria monocytogenes

· Haemophilus influenzae

· None of the above

7. The disease associated with Chronic meningitis is caused by ________

A. Streptococcus pneumoniae.

B. Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

C. Staphylococcus.

D. Treponema pallidum.

E. B and D

8. Meningitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes is usually transmitted by ________

· food.

· water.

· aerosols.

· sexual contact.

· physical contact.

9. What causes Hansen's disease (leprosy)?

· Mycobacterium tuberculosis

· Mycobacterium leprae

· Listeria monocytogenes

· Clostridium botulinum

· Prions

10. What is the only bacterium known to damage peripheral nerves?

· Naegleria fowleri

· Mycobacterium leprae

· Streptococcus pneumoniae

· Neisseria meningitidis

· Haemophilus influenzae

11. Muscle spasms that can lead to an arched back and spasms of the jaw muscles (lockjaw) can be caused by infections with ________

· Clostridium tetani.

· Clostridium botulinum.

· Mycobacterium leprae.

· Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

· Poliovirus.

12. A vaccine that was developed in 1933 has proven effective in reducing the incidence of disease caused by ________

· Clostridium botulinum.

· Mycobacterium leprae.

· Clostridium tetani.

· Streptococcus pneumoniae.

· Listeria monocytogenes.

13. What is the most common form of disease caused by Clostridium botulinum?

· Infant

· Wound

· Lung, followed by exposure to aerosols

· Foodborne

· None of the above

14. A toxin that causes paralysis by preventing the release of acetylcholine at the junctions between neurons and muscles is produced by strains of ________

· Clostridium botulinum.

· Mycobacterium leprae.

· Streptococcus thermicos.

· Clostridium tetani.

· Listeria monocytogenes.

15. Preventing African sleeping sickness is nearly impossible because ________

A. the trypanosomes change their surface glycoproteins evading the host immune response.

B. the tsetse fly has a wide range and eradication is difficult.

C. vaccines must target many antigens.

D. All of the above

E. A and B

16. Poliovirus infections may cause no symptoms and go undetected in ________

· small children.

· teenagers.

· young adults.

· elderly.

· All of the above

17. Which form of poliovirus vaccine is better at eliminating viruses in the gastrointestinal tract?

· Live attenuated vaccine

· Formalin-killed vaccine

18. A major difference between infections with prions and other agents is that infections with prions:

· Do not lead to an inflammatory response

· Are not transmissible

· Do not cause an increase in the size of astrocytes

· Are not fatal

· All of the above

Section: Matching

19. Tissue necrosis, brain edema, headache, fever, occasionally seizures

· Bacterial meningitis

· Listeriosis

· Rabies

· Encephalitis

· Hansen's disease

· Tetanus

· Botulism

· Poliomyelitis

· Transmissable spongiform encephalopathies

· Chagas' disease

20. A kind of meningitis seen in fetuses and immunodeficient patients

· Bacterial meningitis

· Listeriosis

· Rabies

· Encephalitis

· Hansen's disease

· Tetanus

· Botulism

· Poliomyelitis

· Transmissable spongiform encephalopathies

· Chagas' disease

21. Invades nerves and brain; headache, fever, nausea, partial paralysis, coma, and death ensue unless patient has immunity

· Bacterial meningitis

· Listeriosis

· Rabies

· Encephalitis

· Hansen's disease

· Tetanus

· Botulism

· Poliomyelitis

· Transmissable spongiform encephalopathies

· Chagas' disease

22. Range of symptoms from loss of skin pigment and sensation to lepromas and erosion of skin and bone

· Bacterial meningitis

· Listeriosis

· Rabies

· Encephalitis

· Hansen's disease

· Tetanus

· Botulism

· Poliomyelitis

· Transmissable spongiform encephalopathies

· Chagas' disease

23. Fever, back pain, muscle spasms, partial or complete flaccid paralysis from destruction of motor neurons

· Bacterial meningitis

· Listeriosis

· Rabies

· Encephalitis

· Hansen's disease

· Tetanus

· Botulism

· Poliomyelitis

· Transmissable spongiform encephalopathies

· Chagas' disease

24. Death of brain cells leave holes, creating spongiform brain tissue; amyloid plaques form; long delay before symptoms appear; then spasms rapidly worsening to collapse; no cure

· Bacterial meningitis

· Listeriosis

· Rabies

· Encephalitis

· Hansen's disease

· Tetanus

· Botulism

· Poliomyelitis

· Transmissable spongiform encephalopathies

· Chagas' disease

25. Subcutaneous inflammation, damage to lymphatic tissues, muscle, and nerve ganglia; muscle pain and paralysis of intestinal, heart, and skeletal muscle

· Bacterial meningitis

· Listeriosis

· Rabies

· Encephalitis

· Hansen's disease

· Tetanus

· Botulism

· Poliomyelitis

· Transmissable spongiform encephalopathies

· Chagas' disease.

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