United Nations

United Nations:

United Nations (UN), international organization recognized immediately after II-World War. This replaced the League of Nations. In the year 1945, while the United Nations was founded, there were on 51 members; total 193 nations are now members of the organization.

United Nations, that comprises virtually, all countries in the world all along with nearly 190 member nations. United Nations General Assembly, wherein each member nation has one vote, guides policies and finances commonly. The other significant division of the United Nations (UN) is the Security Council, wherein five powerful nations have a majority; the Security Council is charged along with solving crises and maintaining peace. The United Nations (UN) also comprises an Economic and Social Council; an administrative or Secretariat division; and the International Court of Justice or World Court. This also is allied along with some agencies which operate independently, as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Bank, the World Health Organization (WHO) and also the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

History of United Nations:

The earliest concrete plan for the formation of a modern world organization was started under the aegis of the United States (U.S.) State Department late in the year 1939. The name United Nations (UN) was coined through President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the year 1941 to explain the countries fighting against the Axis. This was first utilized officially on January 1, 1942 year, while 26 states combined in the Declaration through the United Nations (UN), pledging them to carry on their joint war effort and not to create peace separately. The requirement for an international organization to replace the League of Nations was initially stated officially on Oct. 30, 1943 year, in the Moscow Declaration, declared by China, Great Britain, the United States (US) and the USSR.

In the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in the August to October,1944year , those four countries drafted particular proposals for a charter for the modern organization and at the Yalta Conference in the February,1945 further agreement was reached. All the states which had eventually adhered to the year 1942 declaration and had declared war on Germany or Japan through March 1, 1945year, were named to the founding conference organize in San Francisco in the April 25 to June 26,1945year. Drafted at San Francisco, the United Nations (UN) charter was signed on 26June and ratified through the required number of states on October 24 is officially United Nations Day. The General Assembly first met in London on January 10, 1946 year.

This was decided to locate the United Nations (UN) headquarters in the E United States. In December, 1946 year, the General Assembly accepted the $8.5 million gift of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., to purchase a tract of land beside the East River, New York City, for its headquarters. The main buildings there, the Secretariat, the General Assembly and the Conference Building, were made in the year 1952. The Dag Hammarskjöld Memorial Library was dedicated in the year 1961.

The Aims of the United Nations:

  • To maintain peace all through the world.
  • To develop friendly relations among nations.
  • To work mutually to assist people live better lives, to remove poverty, disease and illiteracy in the world, to end environmental destruction and to give confidence respect for each other's freedoms and rights.
  • To be a centre for assisting nations achieve these aims.

Principles of the United Nations:

  • All Member States have sovereign equal opportunity.
  • All Member States should follow the Charter.
  • Countries must try to settle their dissimilarities by peaceful means.
  • Countries must ignore by using force or threatening to use force.
  • The United Nations may not interfere in the domestic issues of any country.
  • Countries must try to help the United Nations.

The UN System:

The basic structure of the United Nations (UN) is outlined in an organizational chart. What the structure does not demonstrate is, decision-making inside the UN system is not as simple as in many the other organizations. The United Nations is not an independent, homogeneous organization; this is made up of sovereign states, consequently actions by the United Nations depend upon the will of Member States, to admit, fund or carry them out. Particularly in matters of peace-keeping and international politics, this needs a complex, frequently slow, process of consensus-building which must consider into account national sovereignty and also global needs.

The Specialized Agencies, whereas part of the United Nations system, are divide, autonomous intergovernmental organizations that work with the United Nations and along with each other. The agencies perform work relating to particular fields as trade, communications, maritime and air transport, agriculture and development. Though they have more autonomy, their work inside a country or among countries is all times carried out in partnership all along with those countries. They also depend upon funds from Member States to attain their goals.

Currently, international conferences organized by the United Nations have gained importance. United Nations conferences have been held since the 1960 year, but along with the Conference on Environment and Development, termed as the Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992 year, they became real fora for deciding on inter-national and national policy regarding matters which affect everyone as the environment, human rights and economic development. Because the Earth Summit, United Nations conferences have became forums wherein non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can voice their concerns beside those of governments. These conferences focus world attention on these matters and place them squarely on the global schedule. Even, once the international agreements produced through these conferences are signed, this is still up to all individual country to carry them out. Along with the moral weight of international conferences and the pressures of media and non-governmental organizations, Member States are more likely to endorse the agreements and place them into consequence.

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