Arithmetic Operators, Increment and Decrement Operators

Arithmetic:

The arithmetic operators are the typical `+', `-', `*', and `/' (that is, truncating integer division if the operands are both int), and the remainder or the mod operator `%':

x = a%b;

Sets x to the remainder subsequent to a is divided by b (that is, a mod b). The outcomes are machine dependent unless a and b are both positive.

In arithmetic, char variables can generally be treated like int variables. Arithmetic on characters is quite legal, and frequently makes sense:

c = c + 'A' - 'a';

transforms a single lower case ASCII character stored in c to upper case, making utilization of the fact that corresponding ASCII letters are a fixed distance apart. Rule governing this arithmetic is that all chars are transformed to int prior to the arithmetic is completed. Beware that conversion might include sign-extension when the leftmost bit of a character is 1; the resultant integer may be negative. (This does not occur with genuine characters on any present machine.)

Therefore to transform a file into lower case: 

       main( ) {
               char c;
               while( (c=getchar( )) != '\0' )
                       if( 'A'<=c && c<='Z' )
                               putchar(c+'a'-'A');
                       else
                               putchar(c); }


Increment and Decrement Operators:

In addition to the common `-', C as well has two other interesting unary operators, `++' (that is, increment) and `--' (that is, decrement). Assume that we wish for to count the lines in a file. 

       main( ) {
               int c,n;
               n = 0;
               while( (c=getchar( )) != '\0' )
                       if( c == '\n' )
                               ++n;
               printf("%d lines\n", n);       }

++n is equal to n=n+1 however clearer, specifically whenever n is a complicated expression.  `++' and `--' can be applied merely to int's and char's (and pointers that we haven't got to yet).

The unusual characteristic of `++' and `--' is that they can be employed either before or after a variable.

The value of ++k is a value of k subsequent to it has been incremented. The value of k++ is k previous to it is incremented. Assume that k is 5. Then

x = ++k;

increments k to 6 and then sets x to the resultant value, that is to 6. However,
  

x = k++;

first sets x to 5, and then increments k to 6. The incrementing result of ++k and k++ is similar, however their values are correspondingly 5 and 6.

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