Live Attenuated Vaccines:Attenuation:
It is the loss of virulence of microorganisms which they are antigenic however not pathogenic. Attenuation can be completed by passage of the microorganisms via unfavorable hosts, repetitive culturing in artificial media, growing them at very high temperatures, growing in existence of weak antiseptics, desiccation (i.e., drying), and by prolonged storage of culture. Attenuated organisms are antigenic however not pathogenic. Illustration: BCG (i.e., Bacillus Calmette, Guerin)BCG vaccine:
This vaccine is made from a strain of Mycobacterium bovis. This M.bovis is attenuated by 239 serial sub-cultures in glycerin bile potato medium over a period of thirteen years. Injection of BCG leads to the dissemination and multiplication of bacilli in dissimilar organs with the production of small tubercles. Within a few weeks, the bacilli stop multiplying even though they survive in the tissues for an indefinite time period. The lesions do not spread although rather disappear slowly. Such self-restricted infection persuades delayed hypersensitivity and immunity (i.e., CMI).
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