Forensic science (frequently shortened to forensics) is the application of a wide spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. It may be in relation to a civil action or to a crime. But in addition of its relevance to the underlying legal system, more normally forensics encompasses the accepted scientific methodology or scholarly and norms under which the facts about an event, or an artifact, or some other physical item (such as a corpse, or cadaver, for instance) are to the broader notion of authentication in which an interest outside of a legal form presents in determining whether an object is actually what it purports to be, or is alleged as being.
The term “forensic” comes from the Latin adjective “forensis” meaning of or before the forum. Throughout the time of the Romans, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both of the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches depend on their side of the story. The individual along with the best argument and delivery would find out the outcome of the case. On the whole, the person along with the sharpest forensic skills would win. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word "forensic" - as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation.
In modern use, the term "forensics" in place of "forensic science" can be supposed incorrect as the term "forensic" is effectively a synonym for "related to courts" or "legal". However, now the term is so closely related with the scientific field that various dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word "forensics" along with "forensic science".
The purpose of forensics is to collect a sequence of evidence that act as facts to support investigative theories. This sequence of evidence is offered as part of the judicial procedure that either clears out a suspect of a charge of prove his guilt. Forensic evidence used to convict a suspect should prove ideally beyond a reasonable doubt that the suspect was guilty.
The history of forensics traces back to the late 1800s and early 1900s. The finding of fingerprint evidence represents the biggest breakthrough in forensic science. In the year of 1910, Edmond Locard established one of the foundations of forensics along with his contact-trace theory, which posits that a criminal will always take some evidence from the scene of the crime with him.Subdivisions of forensic science:
It is the application of several sciences to answer questions associating to examination and comparison of, trace evidence, biological evidence impression evidence (such as footwear impressions, fingerprints, and tire tracks), ballistics (firearm examination), controlled substances, and other evidence in criminal investigations. Typically, evidence is processed in a crime lab.
It is the application of proven scientific methods and techniques to recover data from electronic / digital media. DF specialist work in the field plus in the lab.
It is the application of physical anthropology in a legal setting, typically for the identification and recovery of skeletonized human remains.
It is the application of a mixture of and forensic science and archaeological techniques, typically in law enforcement.
It deals with the assessment of insects in, on, and around human remains to assist in determination of location or time of death. It is also possible to find out if the body was moved after death.
It deals with trace evidence in the form of minerals, soils and petroleums.
It is a method of communicating designed to elicit evidence and information.
It is a site specific analysis of past weather conditions for a point of loss.
It is the learning of the uniqueness of dentition better known as the study of teeth.
It is a field in which the principles of pathology and medicine are applied to find out a cause of death or injury in the context of a legal inquiry.
It is the study of the mind of an individual, via forensic methods. It usually determines the circumstances behind a criminal's behavior.
It is the study of the effect of poisons and drugs on/in the human body.
Forensic Document Examination:
Forensic Document Examination or Questioned Document Examination is the discipline that answers questions regarding a disputed document via a variety of scientific procedure and methods. Various examinations involve a comparison of the components of the document, or questioned document, to a set of known standards. The most common kind of examination involves handwriting wherein the examiner attempt to address concerns regarding potential authorship.
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