Programming in .Net:
The .NET Framework (pronounced as “dot net”) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that primarily runs on Microsoft Windows. It contains a large library and provides language interoperability (every language can use code written in other languages) across various programming languages. Programs written on behalf of the .NET Framework execute in a software environment (as contrasted to hardware environment), called as the Common Language Runtime (CLR), an application virtual machine which provides services such like memory management ,security, and exception handling. The class library & the CLR together constitute the .NET Framework.
The .NET Framework's Base Class Library provides user interface, database connectivity, data access, cryptography, numeric algorithms, web application development and network communications. Programmers develop software through combining their own source code along with the .NET Framework and other libraries. The .NET Framework is intended to be utilized via most new applications developed for the Windows platform. Microsoft also generates an integrated development environment mostly for .NET software called Visual Studio.
Because commonly computer systems require interaction among older applications and newer applications, the .NET Framework gives means to access functionality implemented in newer programs and older programs that execute outside of the .NET environment. Access to COM components is provided into the System.Enterprise Services and System.Runtime.Interop Services namespaces of the framework; access to other functionality is attained using the P/Invoke feature.
Common Language Runtime engine:
The Common Language Runtime (CLR) serves as the execution engine of .NET Framework. All of the .NET programs execute under the supervision of the CLR, guaranteeing specific properties and behaviors in the areas of security, memory management, and exception handling.
The .NET Framework introduces a Common Type System, or CTS. The CTS specification describes all possible data types and programming constructs supported through the CLR and how they may or may not interact with each other conforming to the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) specification. Due to this specific feature, the .NET Framework supports the exchange of object and types instances among libraries and applications written by a conforming .NET language.Base Class Library:
The Base Class Library (BCL), a part of the Framework Class Library (FCL), is a library of functionality obtainable to all languages by using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes that encapsulate a number of common functions, by including file reading and writing, XML document manipulation, database interaction, graphic rendering, and so on. It contains classes, interfaces of reusable types that integrate with CLR (Common Language Runtime).
The .NET Framework involved design features and tools that help manage the installation of computer software to ensure it does not interfere with earlier installed software, and it conforms to security requirement.
The design addresses some of the vulnerabilities, such like buffer overflows, which have been exploited by malicious software. In addition, .NET provides a common security model for all of the applications.
Whereas Microsoft has never implemented the full framework on any system except Microsoft Windows, it has engineered the framework to be platform-agnostic & cross-platform implementations are accessible for other operating systems. Microsoft has submitted the specifications for the Common Language Infrastructure (that includes the core class libraries, the Common Intermediate Language and Common Type System,), the C# language and the C++/CLI language to ECMA and the ISO both, making them obtainable as official standards. It makes it possible for third parties to develop compatible implementations of the framework and its languages on other platforms.
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