Introduction to organic Chemistry, Chemistry tutorial

Introduction to Organic Chemistry:

Organic compounds are generally composed of carbon atom. There are numerous general instances of organic compounds that we can examine in our atmosphere. Crude oil is a fusion of many compounds. Such compounds are recognized as hydrocarbons, while their molecules comprise hydrogen and carbon essentials bonded mutually. They're wax, grease and asphalt, naphtha, aviation fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil, gasoline or petrol and gases. Separating them is quite simple as each compound has progressively higher boiling points. Thus, crude oil is heated and each and every component is captured at their respective boiling points.

In organic chemistry, the center is on the component carbon. Carbon is innermost to every part of living organisms; even if, thousands of nonliving things ('such as drugs, plastics, and dyes') are prepared from carbon compounds. In a crystal structure diamonds are carbon atoms. Diamonds are as a result concrete because the atoms of carbon are therefore closely bonded jointly in the crystal shape. That similar capability to set openly mutually builds carbon an excellent structural component in it's another forms too.

One atom of carbon can merge with up to 4 other atoms. Thus, organic compounds generally are large and can contain numerous atoms and molecules bonded together. Organic molecules can be huge, or they consist of the structural components of existing organisms: nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Organic chemistry is the part of chemistry that involves the study of carbon or its compounds. Carbon is now recognized to form a seemingly unrestricted number of compounds. The utilize of organic compounds affect our lives every day in medicine, agriculture, and common life.

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon containing compounds and their properties. This encloses the enormous majority of chemical compounds on the planet, but various substances such as carbonates or oxides of carbon are considered to be inorganic materials even although they contain carbon.

Organic chemicals are constantly liberated into the environment in large quantities. For instance, global production of mineral oil exceeds three billion tons a year and the amount of new organic chemicals made each year in study laboratories and industry is rising exponentially. There is a require to understand how such organic molecules will interact by the atmosphere in order to diminish their influence. To accomplish this kind of reactions in that organic molecules undergo entails to be understood.

The word organic is another word that signifies different things to different people. Moreover many people organic means "natural." For instance, gardeners sometimes talk about using organic fertilizer. What they mean is that they're putting something natural as compost or manure on their plants instead of fertilizers, or synthetic, human-made.

Organic means something entirely dissimilar to chemists. An organic compound is any complex that encloses carbon. That is, an organic compound is any composite whose molecules have carbon atoms. All living possessions are created of compounds containing generally carbon, so lots of things that are "organic" to a gardener are as well 'organic' to a chemist.

Obviously, there are numerous carbon compounds that are human-made, or synthetic.

General properties of organic compounds:

The most common physical properties of an organic material are solubility, boiling point and melting point; these are some of its most significant features. The properties (i.e physical properties) of an organic material can frequently be predicted by observing its structure. In most of the cases, the sufficient information is functional groups and a substance's molecular weight to allow for a good quality estimation of the solubility, boiling point, and melting point to be estimated. Comparing molecules of the same size, the greater the potential of intermolecular force, the more symmetry will favor the compacted phase at a following pressure and temperature.

Difference between an Organic and an Inorganic Compound:

                          Organic compounds

                     Inorganic compounds

Many are gases, liquids or solids

Most are solids

Biological in nature

Mineral in nature

Usually always contain carbon, especially carbon-hydrogen bonds

May contain carbon. Contain metal and other elements. Does not contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Some compounds are highly complex and have high molecular masses. These complex compounds are stable.

Inorganic compounds are less complex. Comparatively a complex compound is generally less stable.


Generally found in living matter, i.e., animals and plants.

Generally obtained from non-living matter, i.e., minerals.

Form covalent bonds

Most form ionic bond, some covalent bonds are present

Unable to make salts due to the covalence of carbon

Make salts


Composed of few elements only, commonly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus

Composed of all the known elements



Highly inflammable and volatile

Not inflammable and non - volatile

Produces more complex set of products during reaction

Produces less complex set of products during reaction


Lower melting and boiling points

Higher melting and boiling points

Slower reaction rate

Higher reaction rate

Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents

Readily soluble in water, insoluble in organic solvents

Poorer conductors of heat and electricity in aqueous solutions

Better conductors of heat and electricity in aqueous solutions

Classified into many classes on the basis of functional groups, known as homologous series. Each class is represented by a general formula and the members show similar properties.

Classified as acids, bases and salts. No homologous series found

Examples: methane, ethane, acetylene, alcohols, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), urea [CO(NH2)2]

Examples: carbon dioxide, sulphuric acid, NaCl, diamond (pure carbon)

Include nucleic acids, fats, sugars, proteins, enzymes and many fuels.

Include salts, metals, substances made from single elements and any other compounds that don't contain carbon bonded to hydrogen.

Exhibit the phenomenon of isomerism

Only the co-ordination compounds show the phenomenon of isomerism

Carbon has the ability to bond by itself to form extensive chains and ring structures; therefore it can form molecules that have from 1 to an infinite number of C atoms.

  • Be bonded through multiple bonds (for example double and triple) also as single
  • Have branches of another carbon chains
  • Require additional atoms connected to them to make them stable. The most general of such is H, but, N, O, X, P and S as well commonly take places attached to C and may yet are attached in numerous different ways.

Functional Groups:

Usually in a molecule there is a group of bonds that are more reactive than all the others and this group tends to resolve how the entire molecule performs in a particular chemical atmosphere regardless of the structure of the rest of the molecule.

A carbon-carbon twice bond is an instance of a functional group. Organic compounds that contain a carbon-carbon double bond and no other functional group are called alkenes (a family name utilized to organize such compounds). All alkenes react by bromine to give up dibromoalkanes.

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