Types of Senescence:Leopold in 1961 has recognized four kinds of senescence patterns, which are as illustrated below:Whole plant senescence:
This is found in monocarpic plants that generate fruit and flower only once in their life cycle. The plants might be annual (example: rice, gram, mustard, wheat, and so on), biennials (example: cabbage, henbane) or perennials (example: certain bamboos and so on). The plant dies soon after ripening of the seeds.
Figure: kinds of senescence
This kind of senescence is found in some perennial plants that possess underground perennating structures such as rhizomes, corm, bulbs, and so on. The ground portion of the shoot dies each year after flowering and fruiting, however the underground portion (stem and root) survives and puts out new shoots again next year. Example: banana, ginger, gladiolus, and so on.Sequential Senescence:
This is found mostly in perennial plants in which the tips of main shoot and branches remaining a meristematic state and carry on to generate new buds and leaves. The older leaves and lateral organs such as branches exhibit senescence and die. Sequential senescence is obvious in evergreen plants. Example: Eucalyptus, Pinus and so on.Simultaneous or Synchronous senescence:
This is found in temperate deciduous trees like elm and maple. Such plants shed all their leaves in autumn and build up new leaves in spring. Since of this shedding of leaves, autumn season is also termed as fall. Such a senescence of leaves or plant organs is termed as synchronous.
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