Types of seed germination

Types of seed germination:

It is of two kinds: Epigeal and hypogeal.

Epigeal germination:

In this kind of germination, the cotyledons are brought over the ground due to fast elongation of hypocotyl. Epigeal germination seen in numerous dicotyledons seeds like bean, sunflower, gourd, cucumber, castor and so on. During this germination the hypocotyls grows actively and become curved. This brings the seed above the soil. After coming over the surface of the soil, the hypocotyl straightens. The loosened seed coat fall downward and the cotyledons become green. Now, the epicotyl grows and plumule gives mount to green leaves. The cotyledons fall downward eventually.

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 Figure: Kinds of seed germination

Hypogeal germination:

In this kind of germination, the cotyledons stay below the soil due to quick elongation of epicotyl. This is found in numerous dicotyledonous seeds and monocotyledonous seeds. During this germination, the epicotyl lengthens and become curved. This brings the plumule above the soil. Cotyledons stay underground. In situation of monocotyledonous seeds such as maize, the coleoptile (plumule covering) grows straight into the soil and comes out to build up the green tube. Plumle lengthens and also comes out of the soil while contained in the coleoptile. The plumle ruptures the coleoptile with further expansion. The coleorrhiza (that is, covering of radicle) all along with radicle grows downwards. After sometimes coleorrhiza ruptures due to additional growth of the radicle. The radicle forms the primary root that is soon substituted by fibrous foot.

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