Types of Placentation:
In Angiosperms, the ovules are present within the ovary. The placenta is a special kind of tissue that connects the ovules to the ovary. The mode of allocation of placenta within the ovary is termed as placentation. Some significant types of placentation are as illustrated below:
1. Axile Placentation:
This kind of placentation is viewed in bi- or multi carpellary, syncarpous ovary. The carpel walls assemble in the centre of the ovary, where the placenta is formed similar to central column. The ovules are borne at or close to the centre on the placenta in each and every locule. Example: Hibiscus.
2. Marginal Placentation:
It takes place in a monocarpellary, unilocular ovary. The ovules are borne all along the junction of the two margins of the carpel. Example: Fabaceae.
3. Parietal Placentation:
This kind of placentation is found in multi carpellary, syncarpous, and unilocular ovary. The carpels are fused just by their margins. Placenta bearing ovules develop at that positions, where the two carpels are fused. Example: Cucumber.
4. Basal Placentation:
This is seen in bicarpellary syncarpous and unilocular ovary. The placenta grows directly on the receptacle that bears a single ovule at the base of the ovary. Example: Asteraceae.
5. Superficial Placentation:
This kind of placentation takes place in a multi-carpellary, multi-locular ovary. The ovules are borne on placentae that develop all round the internal surface of the partition wall example: Nymphaeaceae.
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