MONOCOT Family

Botany - MONOCOT Family

Introduction to MONOCOT Family

MUSACEAE - the banana family

Systematic position, Class: Monocotyledonae, Series: Epigynae, Family: Musaceae

General characters

Distribution - Musaceae involves approximately 6 genera and about 150 species. The members of Musaceae family are extensively distributed over tropical regions of the world.

Habit - Mainly perennial herbs acquiring substantial height, perennating by means of rhizome (example Musa paradisiaca  - Banana), rarely trees (example Ravenala madagascariensis - Traveller's palm) and watery sap is present.

Root - Usually fibrous adventitious root system is observed.

Stem - The real stem is underground termed as rhizome in Musa.  The unbranched, apparent, erect and areal pseudostem is created through the long, stiff and sheathy leaf bases that are rolled around one other to create an aerial pseudostem. The central axis which is concealed at the bottom of the pseudostem is termed as shaft. At the flowering time, the shaft elongates,  pierces  by  the  pseudostem and  generates  an inflorescence terminally. Musa is a monocorpic perennial, since it generates flowers and fruits one time during its life time. In Ravenala, the stem is woody and aerial.

Leaf - Simple along with a long and strong petiole. The leaf blade is large and broad along with sheathy leaf base. The leaf is obtuse and extipulate. The pinnately parellel  venation expands up to the leaf margin.  In Musa the phyllotaxy is spiral but in Ravenala it is distichous that is the leaves are arranged in two rows on similar sides.

Inflorescence - The inflorescence is branced spadix, In Musa. The flowers are guarded through a large, brightly coloured, spirally arranged, boat shaped bracts that is termed as spathes. While the flowers open, the spathes roll back and at last fall off.  The inflorescence is a compound cyme, In Ravenalea. In Musa, the flowers are polygamous that is staminate flowers, pistillate flowers and bisexual flowers are exist in similar plant. The male flowers lie in the upper bracts, the female flowers in the lower bracts and the bisexual flowers in the middle bracts.

Flowers:

1. Brateate,

2. ebractiolate,

3. sessile,

4. trimerous,

5. unisexual or bisexual.

While unisexual, the flowers are monoecious.

Perianth - Tepals 6 is arranged in two whorls of 3 each, free / united. The three tepals of the outer whorl and the two lateral tepals of the inner whorl are fused through the valvate aestivation to form 5 toothed tube type structure in Musa.  The inner posterior tepal is only free. It is specifically broad and membranous.

Androecium - Mainly stamens 6, in two whorls of 3 each, arranged opposed to the tepals. Just 5 stamens are fertile and the inner posterior stamen is either not present or presented through a staminode, In Musa. In Ravenala, all the 6 stamens are fertile. Anthers are dithecous and they dehisce through vertical slits. The filament is filiform and rudimentary ovary or pistillode is frequently available in the male flower.

Gynoecium - Ovary inferior, tricarpellary, syncarpous, trilocular, several ovules on axile placentation. The style of Gynoecium is simple and filiform.  The stigma of Gynoecium is three lobed.

Fruit - An elongated fleshy berry without seeds example Musa and a capsule example Ravenala.

Seed: Non - endospermous

Botanical description of Musa paradisiaca

Habit - Gignatic monocorpic perennial herb.

Root - Fibrous adventitious root system.

Stem - The real stem is underground termed as rhizome. The unbranched, visible, errect and areal pseudostem is created through the long, stiff and sheathy leaf bases that are rolled around one other to create an aerial pseudostem. The central axis which is concealed at the bottom of the pseudostem is termed as shaft. At the flowering time, the shaft elongates, pierces by the pseudostem and generates an inflorescence terminally.

Leaf:

1. Simple along with a long and strong petiole.

2. The leaf blade is large and broad along with sheathy leaf base.

3. The leaf is obtuse and extipulate.

4. The pinnately parellel venation expands up to the leaf margin.

5. The phyllotaxy is spiral.

Inflorescence - Inflorescence is branced spadix. The flowers are protected through large, brightly coloured, spirally arranged, boat shaped bracts termed as spathes. While the flowers open, the spathes roll back and as last fall off.

Flowers:

1. Brateate,

2. ebractiolate,

3. sessile,

4. trimerous,

5. unisexual or bisexual.

While unisexual, the flowers are monoecious. The flowers are epigynous and zygomorphic.

Perianth - Tepals 6 that arranged in two whorls of 3 each. The outer whorl's 3 tepals and the two lateral tepals of the inner whorl are fused through a valvate aestivation to form 5 toothed tube type structure. The inner posterior tepal is only free. It is specifically broad and membranous.

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Diagram: Musa paradisiaca

Androecium - In two whorls of 3 each Stamens 6, arranged opposed to the tepals. Only 5 stamens are fertile and the inner posterior stamen is either not present or presented through a staminode.  Anthers are dithecous and  they  dehisce  through a  vertical  slits.  The filament is filiform and rudimentary ovary or pistillode is frequently available in the male flower.

Gynoecium:

1. Ovary inferior

2. tricarpellary

3. syncarpous

4. trilocular

5. Several ovules on axile placentation.

6. The style is simple and filiform.

7. The stigma is three lobed.

Fruit - An elongated fleshy berry and the seeds are not generated in cultivated Varities.

Floral formulae

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