Mechanism of Stomatal Closing and Opening

Mechanism of Stomatal Closing and Opening:

Opening and closing of stomata occurs due to changes in turgor of guard cells. Usually stomata are open during the day and close at night.

The turgor modifies in the guard cells are due to the entry and exit of water into and out of the guard cells. Throughout the day, water from subsidiary cells enters the guard cells making the guard cells completely turgid. As an outcome, the thin elastic convex outer walls are bulged out causing the rigid and thick concave inner walls to curve away from each other causing the stoma to open.

During night time, the water from guard cells enters the subsidiary cells and as an outcome, the guard cells become flaccid due to reduce in turgor pressure. This causes the inner concave walls to straighten up and the stoma closes.

The real mechanism accountable for entry and exit of water to and from the guard cells has been described by numerous theories.

The most significant theories are:

a. The starch-sugar interconversion theory of Steward
b. Active K+ transport of Raschke
c. pH theory of Scarth
d. Proton-potassium pumps theory of Levitt.

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