Distinguishing characters of Pteridophytes:
A. The life cycle exhibits distinct heteromorphic modification of generation.
B. The plant body of Sporophyte is of dominant phase.
C. Sporophyte is distinguished into true stem, root, and leaves.
D. Vascular tissue that is, xylem and phloem are existed. Xylem lacks vessels however tracheids are existed. In phloem sieve tubes and companion cells are not present.
E. Asexual reproduction occurs by spores.
F. Most of the pteridophytes are homosporous that is, they generate one type of spores. Some exhibit heterospory that is they generate two kinds of spore’s megaspores and microspores.
G. Spores are formed from spore mother cells after meiosis in multi-cellular sporangia.
H. Sporangia bearing leaves are termed as sporophylls.
I. Spores on germination build up into gametophyte that is haploid, multi-cellular, green and a self-governing structure.
J. The gametophyte builds up multicellular sex organs. The male sex organ is termed as antheridium and the female sex organ is termed as archegonium.
K. Sex organs contain sterile jacket.
L. Antherozoids are multiflagellate and spirally coiled.
M. Fertilization occurs within archegonium.
N. Opening of sex organs and transfer of male gametes into archegonium for fertilization are reliant on water.
O. Fertilized egg that is zygote builds up into embryo.
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