Difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes:

Size:

Prokaryotes: Most of the Prokaryotes are very small. A few are larger than 50µm.
Eukaryotes: Most of them are large cells (10-100µm). A few are larger than 1mm.

General Characteristics:

Prokaryotes: All of them are microbes. And Unicellular or colonial. The nucleoid is not bounded by membrane.
Eukaryotes: Several are microbes; most of them are big organisms. All hold a membrane- bound nucleus.

Cell Division:

Prokaryotes: No meiosis or mitosis. Mostly by binary fission or budding.
Eukaryotes: Meiosis and mitosis kinds of cell division take place.

Sexual system:

Prokaryotes: Not present in most forms, whenever existed unidirectional transfer of genetic material from donor to the recipient.
Eukaryotes: Existed in most forms, equivalent male and female contribution in fertilization.

Development:

Prokaryotes: No multi-cellular growth from diploid zygotes. No widespread tissue differentiation.
Eukaryotes: Haploid forms are generated by meiosis and diploid from zygotes. Multi-cellular organisms exhibit extensive tissue discrimination.

Flagella Type:

Prokaryotes: Some contain simple bacterial flagella composed of merely one fibril.
Eukaryotes: The Flagella are of 9+2 kind.

Cell wall:

Prokaryotes: Build up of peptidoglycan (i.e., mucopeptide). Cellulose is not present.
Eukaryotes: The cell wall is build up of cellulose in chitin and in plants fungi.

Organelles:

Prokaryotes: Membrane bound organelles like endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi complex, chloroplasts and vacuoles are not present.
Eukaryotes: Membrane bound organelles like endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi complex, chloroplasts and vacuoles are existed.

Ribosomes:

Prokaryotes: Ribosomes are much smaller and made up of 70 s units (here, s refers to Svedberg unit, the sedimentation coefficient of a particle in ultra centrifuge)
Eukaryotes: The ribosomes are bigger and made up of 80s units.

DNA:

Prokaryotes: Genetic material (that is, DNA) is not found in disciplined chromosomes.
Eukaryotes: Genetic material is found in disciplined chromosomes.

 

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