Beneficial Activities of Bacteria:1. Sewage disposal:
The organic matter of sewage is decayed by saprotrophic bacteria.
2. Decomposition of plant and animal remains:
Saprotrophic bacteria cause decomposition and decay of dead bodies of animals and plants. They liberate gases and salts into atmosphere and soil. Therefore these bacteria are termed as nature’s scavengers.
3. Soil fertility:
A. The ammonifying bacteria such as B. mycoides and Bacillus ramosus transform complex proteins in dead bodies of animals and plants into ammonia that is later transformed into ammonium salts.
B. The nitrifying bacteria like Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas transform ammonium salts into nitrates and nitrites.
C. Nitrogen fixing bacteria like Clostridium and Azotobacter and Rhizobium (that is, a symbiotic bacterium) are capable of transforming atmospheric nitrogen into organic nitrogen. All such activities of bacteria raise soil fertility.
4. Recycling of matter:
Bacteria play a significant role in cycling of elements such as oxygen, carbon, Nitrogen and sulphur. Therefore they help in maintaining ecological balance. Since biological scavengers they oxidize the organic compounds and place free the locked up carbon as CO2. Nitrogenous organic compounds are decomposed to build up ammonia that is oxidized to nitrate and nitrite ions by the action of nitrifying bacteria. Such ions are utilized by higher plants to synthesize nitrogenous organic compounds. Nitrogenous compounds are too oxidized to nitrogen by denitrifying the bacteria.
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