The Angiosperms, Biology tutorial

The Angiosperms (Spermatophyta: the Seed-Bearing Plants)


The angiosperms are explained as more useful on land than conifers. They have turn out to be the leading land vegetation global. They dwell in the large range of habitat comprising salt water and fresh water. They are seed-bearing vascular plants. Their reproductive structures are flowers in which ovules are surrounded in the ovary. Angiosperms are discovered in approximately every surroundings from woods and grasslands to sea margins and deserts. Angiosperms exhibit the enormous diversity of life forms comprising trees, herbs, submerged aquatics, bulbs and epiphytes. Largest Compositae (daisies), and Legumes (beans) and plant families are Orchids.

Common features of Angiosperms:

The wide-ranging features are as follows:

i) Angiosperms make flowers in which spores, sporangia, and seeds grow.

ii) The seeds of angiosperms are surrounded in the ovary.

iii) After fertilization, ovary grows into the fruit.

The diversity of types discovered among angiosperms is bigger than that of any plant group. Size range alone is fairly extraordinary, from smallest individual flowering plant, maybe watermeal (Wolffia; Araceae) at less than two millimeters (0.08 inch), to one of tallest angiosperms, mountain ash tree of Australia (Eucalyptus regnans; Myrtaceae) at approx 100 metres (330 feet). Between the two boundaries lie angiosperms of roughly every size and shape.

Adaptive Features:

Angiosperms have build up flowers instead of cones. Flowers attract animals such as birds, insects, bats, and the host of others due to their agents of pollination. Flowers are attractive. Many of them are brightly scented, colored and at times present pollen or nectar as food to visiting organisms. Flowers have turn out to be extremely significant and even crucial to few insects that through development have turn out to be so dependent on them. Flowers themselves turn out to be extremely structurally adapted to improve pollen transfer by insects. This procedure of pollen transfer via insects has established more dependable than wind pollination. Therefore plants pollinated by insects make less pollen as less are wasted as opposite to wind pollination. Single problem plants have accordingly living on land is that of loss of water consequential in drying out or aridity. If the plant is sheltered by way of the waxy cuticle, it would not then dry out so rapidly and die. When this is finished then problem is that of accomplishing sexual reproduction. Earlier plants required water and lived in water like algae. A few more enhanced algae developed structures in which their gametes grew with thee they disappeared from water and were capable to survive on land as their gametes were sheltered from drying.

a) Avoiding Desiccation:

They have resources of getting water and preserving it. Water is very significant to life. Water is absorbed by roots and moved from stem to leaves all of which internal structures have adapted through control of vascular cells in land plants.

b) Resources of Reproduction:

Their fragile sex organs should be protected and non-motile male gametes should now develop and get the means of reaching female gametes. Having a non motile male gamete is development as it makes pollination independent of water.

c) Need for Support:

Land plants should locate the resources of support as air provided none. This they get, through hard nature of amplification cells in complete plant-roots, stems and leaves.

d) Nutrition:

Plants require light and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Thus some part should be borne above ground where light and air could be attained even as some other should be at ground or below ground level to acquire water and mineral salts to build proficient utilization of them in photosynthesis.

e) Gaseous Exchange:

It is essential for respiration and photosynthesis. Oxygen and carbon dioxide should be exchanged with environment. Stomata and special cells operating in them exist to carry out the function.

f) Environmental Variable:

Water makes the steady environment which air doesn't give. The existence of specialized epidermal cells assists land plants in this reference. Living on land will require the struggle with ever varying light intensity, temperature, PH and ionic concentration.

g) Existence of Flowers:

In angiosperms flowers, once fertilized, megaspores in seed plant stay within megasporum (ovules) and are known as seed. This seed bring the number of benefits to plant. Its gametophyte is completely protected by parent plant and not vulnerable to aridity. In addition, after fertilization, seed grows the food store supplied by parent sporophyte. This store in seed is food for period of germination. Seed is covered in hard structures and can stay undeveloped until situations are appropriate for germination. At times seed may be altered to facilitate its own dispersal. Seed is the complicated structure. It has cells from 3 generations: parent sporophyte, cells of female gametophyte and embryo of next generation.

Monocotyledoneae and Dicotyledoneae:

The phylum angiospermaphyta is divided into 2 classes -monocotyledoneae and dicotyledoneae. They are shortly known as monocots and dicots respectively. Monocots are considered to have developed from dicots. Both groups make flowers but vary mostly in anatomy and morphology of roots and stems with in leaf morphology and number of flower parts. Whereas leaves of dicots contain net-like (reticulate) venation, those of monocots contain parallel venation. Leaves of dicot contain petioles (leaf stalk) and lamina (leaf blade), where as monocot leaves are not so distinguished. They are long thin grass-like structures. Dorsal and ventral surfaces of dicot leaves are definitely dissimilar but they are same in monocots.

Vascular bundles in dicotyledonous stem are set in the ring whereas in monocots they are scattered. There is generally the cambium that provides rise to secondary development in dicot whereas there is none in monocot. There is a major root from which the secondary one could arise in dicot. In monocot there are just adventitious roots. There are less xylem groups in dicots roots whereas they are numerous in monocot roots. Dicot embryo has 2 cotyledons whereas monocot embryo has just 1. Flower parts in dicots are generally in 4 and 5 while those of monocots are in 3. There are different petals and sepals in dicots, while in monocots there are none. Monocot flowers are frequently wind pollinated, whereas dicot flowers are frequently insect pollinated.

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