Scientific methods of investigation, Biology tutorial

Introduction:

Methods used in different sciences are found out both by general nature of objective in mind and by nature of subject matter. A requirement to almost every science is appropriate technique of explanation of its subject matter. Language of such explanation should be capable of reproducing subject matter with precision and exclusivity. If description is of object, there must be only one equivalent object that it must be probable to reproduce or reconstruct from description.

Scientific Methods:

Observing and Communicating:

The most significant scientific methodologies is possession of the very dedicated sense of observation and skill to vividly explain or state such observation properly to someone not present at scene. We must be curious about things we taste, touch, smell, hear and see. We use devices to make observation which would not otherwise be probable. For instance, with the magnifying lens or microscope, we can see details not observable to unaided eye. Some observation about flowering plants which repeat without special equipment.

Observation:

a) Seeds are generated in fruits

b) If seeds taken from the fruit are sown they will grow in plants if conditions are correct.

c) These plants will be like those from which fruits were taken and will generate similar fruits.

Interpretation:

After given observations about seeds from different types of plants might come to definite conclusions:

a) Seeds are generated only in fruits

b) There is something in seed which can develop in plant

c) All plants grown from seed are like those from which fruit was taken and they generated similar seeds.

Prediction:

On basis of conclusions, one might forecast that seeds would produce more plants of that type if they were sown in appropriate soil. Quite frequently, several scientific investigations must comprise many or all of the following:

a) Identification and classification of problem set out to solve or shed some light. Is it on plant, animal, soil or their components?

b) Working safely.

c) Observing carefully

d) Measuring precisely

e) Recording observations accurately

Possible sources of error in investigation comprise inadequate thought in planning investigation, use of impure chemicals or faculty equipment, and inadequate care in reading instructions, observing, estimating, recording and examining data, and interpreting results or in preparing written account of work. Ability to observe is also affected by restrictions of seasons and by the fact that we interpret observations in terms of previous experience. This may effect in misinterpretation.

Repetition:

The strongest method of checking for rightness or truth is repetition. It is the matter of experience that there are objects and circumstances which repeat. It is part of task of scientific investigations to devise conditions under which the circumstances repeat. If scientists can establish conditions essential for repetition, they can confirm the previous explanation or observation by finding whether they now get same result as before.

Consensus:

Another method of verifying correctness of the observation is agreement in different observers. Here multiplicity of observations by different persons corresponds to multiplicity of repeated event. Matter of consensus among different observers is considered by several people as so significant that it is frequently included in definition of science, which is at times partly defined as consensus of qualified persons.

Keeping Record of Investigations:

One must note first date and provide each investigation a title. Then keep the short note of exactly what you perform. Write in cautiously created sentences and made drawings or diagrams to make sure that records can't be misunderstood or altered later. Observations recorded during investigation are known DATA. Counting and measuring allow scientists to be precise. Records made so far during investigation are the kind a scientist would make in laboratory note-book or filed note book.

Start report, with appropriate title, name and date. Then use proper headings to sign post parts of your account. Like Introduction, Materials, Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusion. The use of these headings makes report writing easier and assists readers find information they require.

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