General Physiology, Biology tutorial


The objective of Physiology is to understand mechanisms of living - how living things work. The study of Human physiology is about how the muscles, cells and organs work mutually, how they interrelate. Physiology at times referred to as science of life, looks at living mechanisms, from molecular basis of cell function to entire included behavior of complete body. The word physiology derives from Ancient Greek physis, that means nature, origin, and logia, that mean study of.

Physiologists are everlastingly trying to find answers to main questions in single cell functions, how human populations interrelate, environment on earth; or we can say very wide range of subjects. For instance, the physiologist may learn how the particular enzyme contributes to functions of the particular cell or subcellular organelle. The physiologist may utilize simple nerve networks which are found in marine snails to reply questions about basic mechanisms of knowledge and memory. The physiologist may examine cardiovascular system of the animal to reply questions about heart attacks and other human diseases. Physiologists may learn how body becomes accustomed to temperature and environmental extremes met on earth, or zero gravity met in space flights, to study how life processes deal with such environmental stresses.

Physiologists say that physiology is the primary science for understanding about life, how to treat diseases and handling with stresses our bodies are exposed to in diverse environments. Pathophysiology looks to comprehend abnormalities which happen in human and animal diseases. Physiologists work directly with other scientists and health care professionals in looking out new methods for treating those diseases.

The history of physiology:

According to archeological and historical records, human physiology, as a type of discipline, began about 420 BC in ancient Greece at Hippocratic School of Medicine. Hippocrates of Kos (460-370 BC), regarded by many as father of medicine as we recognize it today, founded medicine as its own discipline.

Few state that Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC), who concentrated on relationship in structure and function, was the genuine founder of physiology.

Galen a famous Greek physician in Ancient Rome, analyzed animals and turned out to be by contemporary standards an expert anatomist and physiologist. It was not actually until 19th century that physiology started making quick development. Matthias Schleiden (1804-1881), a German botanist, and Theodor Schwann (1810-1882), a German physiologist, were co-founders of cell theory - thought that every living thing is composed of cells; with cells being basic unit structure of everything which lives.

Significance of Physiology:

Physiology is significant as it is a foundation on which we make the knowledge of what life is, how to care for disease, and how to deal with stresses imposed on the bodies by diverse environments. Physiological studies of normal biological function give basis for understanding abnormal function seen in animal and human disease (pathophysiology) and for creating novel methods for managing those diseases (translational research). Several physiologists utilize animal models as the significant tool in the research. Having the awareness of anatomy alone can't heal disease. Physiology lets us to understand organ and how to prevent it, manage it or improve it. For instance, patients with congestive heart failure, anatomy of heart is cardiac muscles, its physiology is electrical impulses utilized to contract heart to pump blood. In CHF, heart is not able to pump blood out of it appropriately. As the compensation it begins to beat faster and turns into weaker and ineffective.

Human physiology helps to know mechanisms which work to keep human body alive and functioning, by scientific enquiry in nature of physical, mechanical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and cells of which they are made up of. Principal level of focus of physiology is at level of organs and systems within systems. Endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in reception and transmission of signals which integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is the main feature with regard to such interactions within plants and animals. Biological basis of study of physiology, integration refers to overlap of several functions of systems of human body, and its accompanied form. It is attained through communication which occurs in the range of ways, both electrical and chemical.

Much of the basis of understanding in human physiology was given by animal experimentation. Physiology is the study of function and is directly associated to anatomy which is a study of form. Because of the numerous connections between form and function, physiology and anatomy are fundamentally linked and are studied as part of medical curriculum.

Physiology is experimental science which supports biological and clinical sciences; it is key to prevention, detection, and healing of disease. Without the understanding of fundamental physiology, improvement made in further areas - like sequencing of human genome - is restricted as every biological progress should finally be associated to behavior of entire organism.

The Physiological Society recognizes the importance of using animals in research in order to expand further information of disease systems in both animal and human diseases. This can be a complicated topic to understand and teach and have therefore developed supporting resources designed to address this area specifically.

Difference between physiology and anatomy:

Anatomy studies and explains structures of living things. Anatomy studies form, whereas physiology looks at function - anatomy studies what it is, while physiology studies what it performs.

Physiology as a Career:

Physiologists are frequently found at forefront of biomedical research. But not every physiologist is to be found in laboratories. As scientists turn out to be more and more accountable to public, several graduates are now involved in processing and communicating difficult work either for government ministers or for public themselves. Others possibly found in schools, motivating next generation, or in courts of law, in opposition over difficult patent cases. Physiology creates the essential part of pre- and post-16 biology education, and can as well be studied at university either as the separate discipline or as part of the integrated degree, like biomedical sciences.

Physiologists are experts in studying function of cells and tissues. Methods differ as much as systems which are being studied. Electrophysiologists examine brain and nervous system, from level of ion channels in individual nerve cells, to broad electrical field responses in brain related with idea and movement. Respiratory physiologists examine procedures of breathing, whereas vascular physiologists learn the management of blood flow and gas and nutrient delivery to body. Endocrine physiologists add to knowledge of how body functions through chemical signaling among organs, with control of development and progress. Kidney physiologists learn how kidneys work to keep normal fluid and electrolyte balance and generate urine. Muscle physiologists study the procedures by which we move, and hearts beat. In biomedicine and animal and cellular biology, physiologists are important members of multidisciplinary teams learning the procedures of life and death, teaming up to lessen suffering in animals and people.

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