Flowering Plants, Biology tutorial

Introduction:

Flowering plants are as well termed as spermatophytes or spermatophyta. They are basically parts of the seed-producing vascular plants. They contain well-developed stems, leaves and roots. The seeds having the embryo form from a fertilized egg of an extremely small gametophyte that is fully dependent on the sporophyte, a kind of plant which we see around us. The proficient seed scattering of seed plants account for their continued existence and extensive occurrence. The fertilization of the egg is through the male gamete that is brought about through the pollination, followed by the development of the pollen tube that carries the male gamete to the egg.

Water is not required in this procedure. Therefore, the seed plants are the factual land plants. This is an advance above non-vascular plants and ferns that require water for fertilization. The seed plants are classified into angiosperms and gymnosperms.

Features of Flowering Plants:

The fundamental features of the flowering plants are as follows:

a) The body of the plant is well organized and highly distinguished into special parts and they perform specific functions.

b) There is a dissimilar division into branches, stem, root, leaves and flowers. The roots form the root system, whereas the stem and other portions form the shoot system. The conducting tissues comprise of xylem and phloem forming the vascular system; such plants are as well termed as tracheophyta or vascular plants.

c) Pollen grains are responsible to make 'pollen' tubes that carry male gametes.

d) The flowers are formed for the process of reproduction.

e) The fusion of male-female gametes takes place in the ovary giving mount to the embryo sac which later shapes the seed.

f) The seed is the latest sporophyte. It mainly based on the parent plants.

g) The seed comprises of the embryo.

h) The embryo builds up from a fertilized egg of a very small gametophyte that is fully based on the sporophyte that is a plant which we notice around us.

i) The fertilization of the egg through the male gamete is brought around by pollination, followed through the growth of the pollen tube that carries the male gamete to the egg. Vista is not required in this procedure.

J) Seeds are made up and enclosed in the carpels that become the fruits.

k) Both the seeds and fruits are variously adapted for their efficient dispersal.

Fundamental steps in the life-cycle of flowering plants:

1) Germination:

Sprouting of the seed. Timing is important. Germinating before time, too late, or in the wrong place spells death. Plants employ a variety of germination prompts. These comprise the ratio of day-light to darkness, moisture (timing and quantity), temperature, fire, abrasion and even animal digestive enzymes. For illustration, passing via the digestive system of an animal generally points out that the seed has been dispersed (shifted away) from its parent, that the seed may be deposited beneath a nurse tree when the animal is a bird which defecated while perched and that there is a few fertilizer.

2) Growth: Growth from seedling to a mature plant.

3) Reproduction: Production of offspring.

i) Egg or Sperm Production: Eggs are formed in the ovary, all along with two polar nuclei per egg. Sperm is formed and packaged in the anther (two sperm cells per pollen grain)

ii) Pollination: Shifting of pollen from anther to stigma (through water, wind or animal).

iv) Double Fertilization: If pollen is accepted by the stigma, a pollen tube grows up down the style and to the ovary. Both the sperm cells from the pollen grain go down the pollen tube to the ovary. One sperm cell fertilizes the egg to develop the zygote that builds up into the embryo and finally the new plant. The other sperm cell fuses by the two polar nuclei to make the endosperm that gives food for the embryo.

v) Seed Production: The endosperm and embryo are enclosed through a seed coat to form the seed.

vi) Seed Dispersal: It is the movement of seeds away from the parent. Seed scattering is vital to evade competition with the parent plant and to inhabit new, perhaps better, sites. Plants employ a variety of, ingenious processes to disperse their seeds (for example: hooked seeds to stick on a passing animal, edible ovary to be eaten and dispersed through an animal and so on).

4) Death:

When plants die after less than a year, then they are termed as annuals or ephemerals. When plants die after completion of two years, then they are termed as biennials, and when they live for more than two years, then they are termed as perennials.

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms:

Seed plant and flowering plants are classified into Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.

Gymnosperms:

Gymnosperms (meaning gymnos = naked) signifies plants having naked seeds. They don't have well build up flowers. They are shrubs or trees, generally evergreen having needle-like leaves, even though, a few encompass scale-like leaves or wide leaves. The seeds are borne in a special structures termed as Cones.

Gymnosperms comprise the cycads, conifers and gingkos. Among such the conifers are the most significant as they making up the world's temperate area forests. They produce soft wood that is employed for timber and paper making. They as well yield turpentine and resins. Pine, fir and sypruce are illustrations of conifers.

Angiosperms:

Angiosperms (meaning angion = case) signifies plants with covered seeds. Angiosperms are the flowering plants. They form the biggest group in the plant kingdom. There are more than 25,000 species of angiosperms that differ very much in size and form. They have adapted to nearly each and every kind of habitat.

The angiosperms are much highly evolved than the gymnosperms as they encompass plenty of water-conducting vessels and bear seeds that are protected in fruits. Fruits made up from the ovaries of flowers, the female reproductive organs of angiosperms. The angiosperms are grouped into Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons.

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