Classification and Characteristics of Organisms, Biology tutorial


The way by which plants and animals are put in groups is known as categorization and science of categorization is known as nomenclature or taxonomy. Taxonomy is constructed of nomenclature (naming) and systematics (placing into groups) that is done according to resemblances and dissimilarities.

Nomenclature or taxonomy in biology is binominal pursuing work of Carl-Linnaeus. By the binominal system every organism has 2 Latin names (that are globally settled to evade uncertainty of local names). The 2 Latin names are specific and generic names. This is same approach you have the initial name and the family name. Generic name starts with capital letter whereas specific starts with small letter. Generic name may be shortened in first letter of word like Homo Sapiens can be written in form of H. Sapiens. Therefore hierarchy can be offered starting with highest so:

I. Kingdom

II. Phylum

III. Class

IV.  Family

V. Order

VI. Genus

VII. Species.


Taxonomic Hierarchy:

Every group has the number of lower hierarchy. Sub-phylum vertebrata is build of 6 classes, whereas class mammalia is constructed of 19 orders and so on. In animal subphylum only class mammalia have hairs and feed the young with milk. Though reptiles, mammalian, amphibian fishes and birds have vertebral column, and so all are known as vertebrae.


The word species explains group of directly associated organisms that are able to interbreeding make fertile offspring. But there are some omissions to the definition. By inference, exception to underlined description would signify that when few members of similar species interbreed, the offspring are not fertile. At times 2 genetically connected organisms can create infertile offspring as is case of the cross between donkey and the cow generating the mule. When members of similar specie, in their effort to live have to adapt to diverse situation, they develop to turn out to be very dissimilar from each other that they cannot interbreed productively to produce fertile offspring.

Kinds of Classification:

There are 2 major kinds - artificial and natural. The classification is artificial when organisms are set together by thinking of only few simply experimental features. The most utilize categorization is natural and phylogenetic.

The Super Kingdoms - Virus and Eukaryote:

Living things were clustered in two kingdoms (plants and animals) till lately. It was thought that plants were antotrophic; and animals relied on organic sources. Animals should thus move about to look for their food for which they require the developed nervous system to perform. Conversely plants don't require moving as they can tap from the location raw materials with which they produce.

Fact that all cellular forms contain one or other of the 2 opposite characteristics:-

i) DNA is not surrounded by nuclear membrane and free in cytoplasm (prokaryotes).

ii) DNA surrounded in nuclear membrane (eukaryotes). It signifies that prokaryotes don't have nuclear and that eukaryotes developed from prokaryotes.

The Viruses (Super Kingdom)

Viruses considered as boundary between living and non living things. Their main characteristics are:

i) They are obligate endoparasites, causing disease to their host.

ii) They only reproduce by occupying living cells

iii) They are the smallest living organisms

iv) They are easy in structure. Have only small piece of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA enclosed by the protein or lipo-protein coat.

Eukaryotae (Super Kingdom)

i) Features of viruses are extremely different from eukaryotae whose characteristics are sum up here:

ii) Except for protoctista, are multicellular, larger

iii) DNA is linear and have in defined nucleus.

iv) Contain both DNA and RNA

v) Contain several organs in the individual cells.

vi) Comprise of complex structures of cell walls and membranes.

The Five Kingdoms:

a) The Prokaryotae Kingdom:

Prokaryotic bacteria and blue-green algae and different primitive pathogens; due to lack of consensus on how to divide organisms in phyla informal names are utilized for main divisions: kingdom Monera, Monera, Prokayotae moneran, moneron - organisms which usually reproduce by asexual budding or fission and whose nutritional form is absorption or photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

b) Protoctista Kingdom:

This group is least natural of five kingdoms. Protoctista are the group of eukaryotic organisms which could not fit in other 3 (fungi, plantae and animalia) kingdoms. A lot of of them are unicellular. It includes those eukaryotes which are regarded as ancestors of plants, animals and fungi.

c) Fungi Kingdom:

Fungi are significant organisms which belong to their own kingdom, entirely separate from plants and animals. The immensely varied group of great economic significance, fungi remains immensely under-studied compared to plants.

d) The Kingdom Plantae:

Plants (autotrophic eukaryotes) arrived on earth only 420 million years ago, while other life have existed here since 3.5 thousand million years ago. Kingdom plantae is known as kingdom Metaphyta. Kingdom plantae comprises all kinds of multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic plants found in the biosphere. Every member of family includes true nucleus and advanced membrane bound organelles.

e) Kingdom Animalia:

Animals are one of four eukaryote kingdoms. They are heterotrophic, multicellular, ingest food, digest food within and egest undigested wastes. Similar to plantae, rest of variations among animal beyond description just given rely on evolutional trend and adaptation to fifferent hapitats.

Specification Identification Keys:

The key is the method by which biologists easily recognize the organism. To do the key these are steps you should take:

i) Write observable characteristics like shape, number of appendages, color, segments.

ii) Match them with diagnostic traits of the particular group keys like these could be explained as artificial as they deal only with forms. Though several keys permit organism to be categorized in the natural phylogenetic hierarchical classification system.

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