Application of Genetics, Biology tutorial

Introduction:

The practical application of knowledge of genetics have assist in no small measure to resolve if not fully at least in part, some human troubles. The information of genetics has lead to the scientific and economic growth of several countries of the world.

Application of principles of Heredity:

Genetics is helpful in numerous field of human endeavor. The principles of heredity are employed widely in three significant fields.

1) Agriculture

2) Medicine

3) Technology

Principles of heredity in Agriculture:

From ancient times, humans have been domesticating animals and cultivating plants to fulfill their requirements. Their methods made use of cross and self fertilization and asexual-sexual reproduction.

Cross Fertilization:

This is a kind of fertilization of a plant as an outcome of the fusion of the gametes from the other plant however of the similar species. In such methods, new gene combination take place, therefore they introduce genetic variation into the population. This variation can give mount to enhanced varieties of a species.

Advantages of Cross Fertilization:

a)  This leads to the production of improved offspring.

b) It generates viable seeds.

c) Offspring or individuals generated are more adapted to their ecological conditions.

d) It leads to the development of new varieties with good features.

Self Fertilization: 

This is the kind of fertilization of a plant as an outcome of the fusion of the gametes of flowers from the similar plant. Such methods generate populations of offspring which are genetically identical to the parent. They are therefore helpful for propagating individuals who exhibit desirable features so that such traits can be passed or unaffected to their progeny.

Advantages of Self Fertilization:

a) It leads to the generation of pure breed line.

b) Breeds with requisite features are generated.

c) It assists to concentrate and conserve particular qualities in animals.

Sexual Reproduction:

This is a kind of reproduction that comprises the fusion of the male gamete example: sperm cell, and the female gametes, example: egg or ova or cell to develop a zygote that later grows to a young offspring.

Advantages of sexual reproduction:

a) It consents variability of the individuals.

b) It improves survival in new or varying atmosphere.

c) It facilitates for production of hybrids of the enviable traits.

d) It gives ways for the maintenance of chromosome number from generation to generation.

e) It improves speculation or development of latest species.

Asexual Reproduction:

This is a kind of reproduction in which new organisms are generated from a single parent devoid of the production of gametes.

Advantages of Asexual Reproduction:

a) It generates offspring which are similar.

b) It is a fast mode of producing the offspring.

c) Offspring generated are simply adapted to atmosphere.

d) It leads to the generation of pure breeds.

Application of Genetics in Medicine:

Genetics has contributed hugely in different fields of medicine. They comprise:

1) Determining the paternity of a child:  Genetics is employed in the determination of the paternity of a child whose father-hood is being lawfully doubtful. The individuals comprised in law suit over parentage are needed by the law to experience the DNA test.

2) Blood Transfusion:  Genetics is helpful in finding out the compatible blood groups -A, B, AB, and O prior to blood transfusion to prevent the agglutination and death of the recipient.

3) Marriage counseling:  Pairs yet to go into marriage are informed on certain hereditary diseases like hemophilia and sickle cell anaemia so that carriers don't go into marriage. The application of knowledge of heredity in marriage counseling is of huge significance in decreasing the incidence of hereditary diseases. If blood test prior to marriage discloses that a pair is both carriers of the sickle cell trait (AS), such a marriage is dejected as any cross among the man and the woman might lead to the production of sicklers.

If a man is Rh-positive and his wife is Rh-negative such marriage is as well discouraged to avoid the incidents of Still-births.  When such a marriage is allowable, the maternal blood carries on to build up antibodies against the foetal blood. The antibodies level in the maternal blood will continue to increase with subsequent pregnancies - leading to a refusal of the foetus by the maternal blood, a condition termed as erythroblastosis foetalis.  In this situation the baby is born dead as an effect of Rh-incompatibility among the man and his wife. It is good for a man of Rh-positive to marry a woman who is too Rh-positive and for a man who is Rh-negative to marry a woman who is Rh-negative.

4) Diagnosis of diseases:  Medical staffs do guide patients in identifying certain diseases by using the principles of genetics in such a way that diagnosis of such diseases can simply be done and treated where positive.

5) Crime detection:  The employ of blood group and finger-prints can assist in finding criminals by law enforcement agents.

6) Growth of test-tube babies: It is now likely to produce children exterior the mother's womb or else termed test-tube babies. This has made several barren women to encompass their own babies.

7) Selecting the sex of a baby:  It is now feasible with the assistance of genetics to select the sex of a baby a couple might want through sperm separation methods.

8) Knowing the sex of a baby:  It is now a common attribute for pairs to know after fertilization and before birth, the sex of their baby by the utilization of scanners and other special methods.

Application of Genetics in Technology:

Genetic engineering: It is the transfer of nucleic acid molecule (DNA) of one organism (donor) to the nuclei acid molecule (DNA) of the other organism (host) that lacks the capability to generate it (the transferred DNA) naturally however is capable to replicate the newly introduced DNA is termed as genetic engineering.

1) Genetic engineering in the production of insulin:  Gene for the production of insulin in human can be transferred to Escherichia coli (a bacterium) to generate insulin for the treatments of human.

2) Genetic engineering in the improvement of crop:  Serious efforts are being made by genetic engineers to transfer the nitrogen fixing genes from Rhizobium leguminosarum into cells of cereals and other non-leguminous plant crops to raise their nitrate in takes in the soil so as to raise the food production.

3) Biotechnology:  In present years, geneticists revolutionized the science of Biotechnology by really manipulating the genetic material of the living organisms to get our requirements specifically in medicine and agriculture.

The two fields which have emerged from such advances in genetics are genetic engineering and hybridoma technology.

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