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Introduction to Model Theory

In mathematics, the model theory is a study of mathematical structures (example, graphs, groups, fields, universes of set theory) by using tools from mathematical logic. It closely binds to abstract algebra, mainly in the universal algebra.

The objects to study in model theory are models for formal languages that are structures which give meaning to the sentences of these formal languages.

When a model for a language satisfies a specific theory or sentence (set of sentences satisfying special conditions) it is known as model of the theory or sentence.

The Finite model theory focuses on finite structures, deviates considerably from the study of infinite structures in both the problems studied and the methods used. The model theory in infinitary logic or higher-order logics is hampered by the fact that completeness does not in common hold for these logics. Yet, a big deal of study has also been complete in such languages.

The model theory recognizes and is intimately concerned with a duality. It inspects semantical elements by means of syntactical elements of a corresponding language.

**Logic + universal algebra = model theory.**

The model theory developed quickly during the year 1990s and a more modern definition is provided by Wilfrid Hodges in the year 1997.

**Model theory = algebraic geometry - fields.**

In a Similar way to proof theory, model theory is situated in a region of inter disciplinary among philosophy, mathematics and computer science. The most necessary professional organization in the field of model theory is the Association for Symbolic Logic.

theory; that is model theory is applied to fields, groups, and geometric model theory. An absent subcategory is computable model theory however this can be seen as an independent subfield of logic. Illustrations of early theorems from classical model theory include Godel's completeness theorem, the upward and downward and Lowenheim-Skolem theorems, the two-cardinal theorem of vaught, isomorphism theorem of Scott, the omitting types theorem, and the Ryll-Nardzewski theorem. Illustrations of early outcomes from model theory applied to fields are Tarski's elimination of quantifiers for real closed fields, theorem of AX on pseudo-finite fields and Robinson's development of non-standard analysis. A necessary step in the evolution of classical model theory happened with the birth of stability theory (via Morley's theorem on uncountably categorical theories and Shelah's classification program) that developed a calculus of independence and rank based on syntactical conditions satisfied by theories. In the last few decades applied model theory has constantly merged with the more pure stability theory. The result of this synthesis is known as geometric model theory (that is taken to involve o-minimality, for illustration, and also classical geometric stability theory). An illustration of a theorem from geometric model theory is Hrushovski's proof of the Mordell-Lang conjecture for function fields. The target of geometric model theory is to provide geography of mathematics by embarking on a full study of definable sets in different mathematical structures aided by the substantial tools developed in the study of pure model theory.

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